2nd Renaissance


Beyond Industrial Capitalism and Nation States



This freesite contains explicit truth and new ideas.
The content could turn you from an obedient subject to a rabid secessionist.
You might become a new tribalist and a Leaver-Giver.
You could help save the world.

Due to the file size this document has been stripped of images and split into two parts. There is a link provided to a separate file containing all the 2R diagrams. There is also a download link to the full 2nd Renaissance freesite - with all images and diagrams.

The 2Rdiagrams.rar link is here.

A fully imaged version of 2nd Renaissance is available as a download here.


We are experiencing a second great Renaissance in knowledge, technologies and thought. There is a growing body of opinion and literature that recognises the many new realities and opportunities facing us. But most individuals, businesses and institutions, continue to think and act too conventionally.

This freesite puts the case for radical advancement, coupled with the sound and ethical use of the new abundance stemming from the digital and scientific revolutions that are sweeping us forward. It demands far more than evolutionary change and a wide revision of old attitudes and behaviours. What is called for is a complete transformation, from one level of civilization to another that is higher and better in every way.

To facilitate referencing and discussion, each sub-heading in this document is suffixed thus: [0] Click for Links to Sub-Headings

A Second Transformation Should Not Be Delayed [1]
The original Renaissance, in Europe, occurred progressively. During the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries the old feudal order of things was painfully replaced by a new level of civilization based on wide availability of printed information and knowledge. The transformation took so long because the masses had first to become literate, and then new ideas and reform movements had to emerge and gradually prevail over the old order. The forces of the eventual losers, the Roman Church and the remnants of feudal domains, fought determinedly to retain control and privilege. Many innocents died in wars of suppression, and at the hands of the first Inquisition.

Today, there is no reason for similar delays in effecting a transformation to a new level of civilization based on instant communications and free exchange of information and knowledge. Nor should it be necessary to effect the changes through conflicts and bloodshed.

Our Present Civilization Is Broken Beyond Repair [2]
Rather than waste time and energy in attempts to change the existing civilization from within, while retaining its core paradigms and assumptions, it will be wiser and quicker to leave it behind. Many of the old social and economic concepts are flawed, and they would weigh us down if we continued to adhere to them. Thankfully, there is no longer any need for a revolution to break away from the control of central governments and global corporations and institutions. If those entities were still effective, and they remained necessary to modern society, the prospects of a protracted struggle would be high. But the philosophies and economic mechanisms of nation states and global corporations are founded on obsolete principles, of unrelenting economic scarcity and the use of market forces to ensure that available resources are maximised.

Once knowledge is freely available and physical resources are abundant, the old order is irreparably broken. It is then pointless to try to reform and evolve systems such as industrial capitalism and nationalism, we must simply put them behind us and go forward, using a new set of paradigms.

A Kaleidoscopic View [3]
This document is quite extensive, so it is arranged in a manner that facilitates skipping and rereading several times. Rather than risk boring readers with a laborious and tightly integrated argument for transformation, the author has chosen to present a kaleidoscopic view of the subject matter. You can read only the headings that interest you or read everything sequentially. However you read it, all the information can be tied together to form a single perspective of where humanity has been in the past, where it is today, and where it can go in the future.

Early in the first Industrial Revolution, people looked through the new invention of Sir David Brewster and marvelled at the optical patterns that his Kaleidoscope produced. Yet, they could not know what wondrous new technologies would become available to humanity in the space of barely two hundred years. Nor did they realise the nature and significance of ancient knowledge that had already been lost, or kept secret, for millennia.

Today, thanks to the digital computer and the information technologies it has spawned, ordinary people can know and understand just about everything. If they care to take the time and trouble to stop worrying about their day to day existence, and focus on the future, people can now determine what sort of life their children will have. As far as we know, the opportunity for ordinary citizens to shape their own world according to their aspirations, values and beliefs, has never existed before. This new social phenomenon, and the 2nd Renaissance that is making it possible, is BIG news. But you will not read or hear of it in the mainstream media of our present civilization. This document is your personal kaleidoscope for viewing a mosaic of related facts and perspectives that those in control of today's world would rather you were not aware of. Enjoy it, then act on the insights it provides.

The 'Better' Things Are, The Emptier People Feel [4]
According to all the accepted measures of economic wellbeing, the citizens of developed countries are now better off than ever before. Paradoxically, figures for one of the wealthiest nations on Earth, the United States, show that while real income levels have risen by some 400 percent, since the end of World War II, the percentage of Americans who consider themselves to be "very happy" has not risen to the same degree. Over a period of three decades, from the late fifties to the late eighties, the number of "very happy" Americans actually fell by 5%. As the US entered the 1990s, only 30 percent of its citizens were "very happy". Similarly, only 30 percent were "well satisfied with their financial situation". From the survey statistics, more than two thirds of the citizens of the US do not feel "very happy" with their lot in the civilization that industrial capitalism built them. Social commentators are now describing epidemics of boredom, alienation and despair in the Western world as diseases of affluence.

Youth Suicides Reflect Alienation and Despair [5]
The young people in affluent, industrial-capitalist countries are taking their own lives. The statistics on youth suicide, like those on unemployment, are rubbery. Politicians elected on a platform of reducing the problem tend to obscure harsh realities by changing the way figures are collected, and the rules by which certain forms of death are included or excluded. But nothing can hide the ugly truth that, in the developed world, young people, particularly young men, are killing themselves in droves. This is so across all socio-economic levels of those societies. The raw figures are indicative of the magnitude of the problem. In the United Kingdom, 19,000 young people attempt suicide each year and some 700 succeed. Again in the UK, suicide accounts for 20% of all deaths of young people aged 15 to 24 years, and is the second most common cause of deaths in this age group. In Australia, suicide rates in males aged 15 to 24 years increased fourfold in the latter half of the 20th century, and suicide now accounts for one in every four deaths in that age group. Throughout the 1990s, more young Australians died by suicide than by road accidents. Chillingly, an Australian survey of school students showed that 60% have thoughts of suicide.

No civilization or economic system, no matter how much wealth it creates, can be deemed a success when the majority of its youth are so despairing that they consider or attempt suicide.

Industrial-Capitalism Is A Widely Adopted Failure [6]
Today, capitalism is the dominant economic system on this planet. Socialism and communism have been and gone, and only industrial-capitalism retains any sway. The financier, George Soros, is critical of capitalism because "it has no soul". Nothing in the system takes care of the people who lose as a result of the operation of market forces. By some mysterious means an informed and rational market is supposed to lead to a rapid and efficient distribution of scarce resources through a reallocation of the traditional factors of production; land, labour, and capital. That such a simplistic theory can continue to form the basis of economic management, at a time when science is uncovering the startling complexities of biological systems and habitats, says a lot about the shallowness of public debate and policy in our society.

Although industrial-capitalism has been in operation for some two hundred years, 5 billion human inhabitants of this world still live on less than US$2 per day. This fact alone says that something is very wrong with the theory and operation of capitalism.

Capitalism Has Been Mistaken For Civilization [7]
Governments in the developed world pay undue attention to economic indicators, and try to avoid accountability in areas of human advancement and social development. Their spin-merchants trumpet economic growth and other indicators (whether in a raw or sanitised form) and claim success, no matter what is happening to the social fabric, the environment, biodiversity, or other relevant measures of the well-being and sustainability of our present civilization.

Regrettably, governments have come to equate the economics of capitalism, and "good numbers" in this area, with a job well done. This philosophy misrepresents the goals of capitalism and industrial production as being synonymous with the advancement of civilization. Nothing could be further from the truth.

True Civilization Involves Cooperation [8]
Daniel Quinn is one of the early thinkers and writers of the 2nd Renaissance. In his novels, such as Ishmael and The Story Of B, Quinn describes the way successful tribal societies evolved in the times before the practices of agricultural farming and animal husbandry made it possible to accumulate the food surpluses that led to the emergence of towns and cities, and to a new need to buy food rather than find it on the plains and in the forests of the old world. Early tribal societies evolved a way of living in conditions of managed abundance. Natural selection ensured that the societal models that were successes survived, and that the failures did not.

Science now understands that 19th century models of nature, that emphasised the ruthless extermination of rivals, were mistaken. A modern understanding of ecosystems and symbiotic relationships leads to the conclusion that cooperative models predominate in both the plant and animal kingdoms. However, business and government thinking remains locked into the old combative models, in which human enterprises and institutions are continually at war with each other and the planet at large. These are dead-end mindsets that cannot lead us to a higher, more advanced level of human civilization. War is not found in nature, only coexistence models succeed there.

Tribal Models Worked For Thousands Of Years [9]
The Australian aborigines were, prior to European settlement, people who lived in conditions of managed abundance. For sixty thousand years, far longer than the fleeting histories of socialism, communism and capitalism, aboriginal tribes existed in harmony with the land. No major wars were fought. Although there were skirmishes between tribes these were seldom serious or prolonged. The aboriginal people did not experience famine because they did not exceed the population levels that could sustain a hunter-gatherer existence. They had no government except their local tribal councils, and they paid no taxes. In order to survive, the aboriginal people of Australia had only to work the equivalent of three days per week, the rest of their time was for their leisure and storytelling. The concept of suicide was unknown to these original inhabitants of the Australian continent. They also enjoyed one advantage over modern Australians; tribal people had lifelong support and cradle to grave security within their tribe. In a technological sense tribal Australians were backward, but in terms of community and social support structures they were an advanced culture.

Takers and Leavers [10]
The settlers from Europe despised the "primitive" aborigines because they had not "conquered" the land, they were not warlike and they had not "developed" the resources of the land they inhabited. In the terminology of Daniel Quinn, the settlers had a Taker mentality while the tribal people were Leavers. The idea of exploiting the land and of exerting the power of life and death over all other species, is the notion of Takers. Leavers, on the other hand, preserve a balance in the way they draw sustenance from the land and kill only what they need to survive.

After only two hundred years of farming, mining, and otherwise developing Australia along taker lines, the record is damning. Settlers from Europe who were accustomed to four seasons in a year cleared and cropped land that might often go for seven years in a continuous state of summer. Now, 40% of all the original forests on the Australian continent are gone, 75% of rainforests are lost and can never be regenerated, and much of the fertile topsoil has been eroded and carried away on the prevailing winds - across the Tasman sea to New Zealand. Because the water table rose due to the loss of trees and vegetation, soil salinity is now a massive problem, and large areas of Australia can no longer be cultivated. It only took 200 years for takers to destroy land that had been preserved by leavers for 60,000 years.

Tribalism Remains A Viable Way Of Life [11]
Daniel Quinn argues that tribal models have not vanished completely. He instances the culture and operation of the circus as an example of the persistence of tribalism during the industrial age. People who join a circus do so because they want to belong to the close-knit culture that such organisations have. Factors such as nationality, race, gender, language, religion, sexual orientation or politics, don't determine who can or can't join and belong. To be an accepted member of a working circus a person only has to contribute to its success in every area where their inputs are needed. The stars of the high trapeze help erect the big-top, distribute the hand bills, sell the tickets, and then they fly. After the show they help pull the tent down and move everything to the next town.

In return for sharing goals and contributing fully, members of the circus receive the unconditional support of the group. The circus tribe looks after, and stands by, its own people. Many start-up businesses adopt a tribal ethos, but they lose this characteristic as they grow. Microsoft was quite tribal at the beginning, but by the time it hired a finance manager and a human resources manager it became hierarchical and bureaucratic, and the magic of a tribe was lost. Tribal cultures are still with us, but they are not in the mainstream of big business, big government and big crime. Tribalism persists in pockets of our culture but it is not widespread.

The New Tribal Phenomenon [12]
There are a growing number of advocates of new-tribalism, but its nature is widely misunderstood. While few people seriously believe that new tribalism involves going back to living in caves, many think that it is associated with restraint, low economic growth and reduced living standards. Quinn himself, in his book Beyond Civilization, gives the impression that sustainable growth implies that not everyone can aspire to the lifestyles of the top Taker societies of the US and Europe. However, Quinn also points out that people who leave our Taker civilization behind, do so in the expectation of gaining something more valuable than the way of life they give up. As he puts it, "People never run off to join the circus to give up something. They run off to the circus to get something."

Besides the unconditional support that membership of a tribe implies, Quinn suggests that people who are prepared to live in a sustainable way, as Leavers, can expect to gain "security, hope, light-heartedness, and freedom from anxiety, fear and guilt." This is quite a shopping list. Given the mess that the outgoing civilization is in, such gains will be attractive to many people who are currently enduring feelings of hopelessness regarding their retirement years and the future of their children.

Still, many in the New Tribalism movement, including Daniel Quinn, appear to overlook the impacts of the scientific discoveries and enlightenment associated with a second renaissance. Far from there being unavoidable choices between new tribal lifestyles, continued affluence and rising living standards, it is becoming practical to have all these outcomes at once.

The emergence of a new tribal society is being held back by the continued acceptance of old paradigms and "truths" that are no longer valid. One of these no-longer-truths is that resources and the factors of economic production are, and always will be, scarce. Other no-longer-truths are that nationalism remains desirable and appropriate in a globalised world, and that national governments desire to progress, and can implement democratic processes that will take us forward, to the sunlit uplands of a new age.

The Most Important Events and Outcomes of the First Renaissance [13]
Because it took place over many generations, and involved so many disparate events, the history of the Renaissance in Europe is often presented in a rambling, fragmented manner. The single most important event, and the single most important outcome, both tend to be obscured by the clutter of information about the flowering of the arts, the many wars, the reformation movement, and so on. The single most important event was Johannes Gutenberg's introduction of the moveable type printing press in c 1455. This made possible the spread of information, knowledge and new ideas on a hitherto unprecedented scale. The escalation in the total amount of information then available to civilization led directly to the single most important outcome of the Renaissance, that of organised governments and democratic nation states.

Douglas Robertson is an author and scientist who has studied the relationship between information and civilization. To Robertson, information is civilization. He categorises the levels of human civilization according to the amount of information available. Level 1 arose with language, level 2 with writing, and level 3 was ushered in by mass publication. In his book, The New Renaissance - Computers and the Next Level of Civilization, Robertson notes that being limited to communicating information by verbal languages made anything more than a localised feudal realm impractical. Once information could be stored and transmitted in written form it was practical to expand the areas of rule, autocratic governments and widespread empires proliferated.

During the Renaissance, mass publication increased the amount and availability of information immensely. It became practical to organise and administer democratic forms of government. This was exactly what the people of Europe, who had suffered under the secular and spiritual domination of the Roman Church throughout the Dark Ages, wanted. Not every nation state became democratic, but the amount of information to enable this to happen was assured.

In A Level 4 Civilization Everyone Can Know Everything [14]
Douglas Robertson writes that while a billion fold increase in the generation of information will become a reality in a Level 4 Civilization, this will not be its defining characteristic. He says that, "The ability to easily find and utilise the entire information stock will be the hallmark of a Level 4 Civilization."

Electronic computing began with the mainframe paradigm, this was consistent with the dominant industrial technologies and the way governments and businesses were organised at the time. Information was centralised, control was centralised and access to the system depended on hierarchical levels of authority. In contrast, modern computing is increasingly decentralised.

In a system such as Freenet, data is dispersed across many nodes rather than being concentrated on particular server units. The information is not anywhere, it is everywhere. This system approaches that of a computing model for the first stage of a Level 4 Civilization. Provided that they know the appropriate key to use, it is possible for anyone to retrieve a file from Freenet. The information that is retrieved in this way is free of control and censorship.

Porn and Free Speech Cannot Be Separated [15]
Were it not for its non-searchable design, Freenet would conform to Douglas Robertson's defining characteristic for information technology in a Level 4 Civilization, the entire information stock could be utilised, and this could be done freely, without permission or denial being involved.

Such a notion will have official control freaks and self-appointed morals censors in a frenzy. However, no Freenet author should apologise for the fact that a full spectrum of data, from "very good" to "very bad" is accessible on Freenet. This is the way information delivery will increasingly work, in an everything-available everything-free manner. Rather than show contrition about what some people are inserting to Freenet, it is far better to repeatedly drive home the following points.

The Most Unbelievable Change of the 2nd Renaissance [16]
Of all the changes that form part of the great transformation presently engulfing our world, the reality of abundance is the most difficult for most people to come to terms with. The notion that a Level 4 civilization can possibly produce more than enough physical resources and energy to feed, clothe and shelter all of humanity, at standards higher than those presently enjoyed by the top 10% of citizens of the outgoing civilization, is contrary to all the documented principles and knowledge in the vast number of economic texts and analyses that exist today.

However, all the old texts are now outdated. The force that has rendered conventional economic doctrines obsolete is information. The tool that has made it possible to access and utilise not only information but imagination and vision is the digital computer. The intellectual disciplines that have been greatly leveraged by the explosion of information and knowledge, and the availability of digital computers, are the sciences. The sciences are revising and extending knowledge exponentially, and new technologies spawned by scientific discoveries are leading, inevitably, to abundance in every aspect of human existence. As early as the 1960s the late G. Harry Stine recognised where we are headed. He said it simply.

"We must learn how to be rich and handle abundance, because we have never had to do it before."

Food Production Capacity Already Exceeds Global Needs [17]
Before we consider why abundance alarms powerful interests we need to establish that abundance exists. We can get to the crux of the reality of abundance without needing to instance the way new sources of energy can already eliminate our dependence on fossil fuels, or the way nanotechnology will soon offer the prospect of robotically manufactured goods that are constructed from molecules - from the inside out - rather than crudely fashioned by human machinists from larger blocks of material. We can look at the abundance of food.

To many people in the developing world this is a contradiction in terms, food and abundance do not go together in their countries. But, when all countries are considered together, there is already sufficient productive capacity to feed every human being on Earth. Although food is not scarce in an overall sense, more than 100,000 children die each month from malnutrition and related diseases. Excess food is routinely dumped and agricultural production is restricted by quotas designed to maintain high prices.

Greed and fear are the historical causes of the obscene failure of Western nation states to end the practices that curtail the production and distribution of food, and other essential resources, to the people of the world.

Abundance Scares Profiteers and Politicians [18]
Vested interests and government ideologues alike are wedded to the notion of economic scarcity and are intent on keeping it alive. It is easy to understand why those who control the supply of food want to maintain a base level of scarcity. If food were too plentiful it would not be possible to charge high prices. But why would governments fear abundance? Look no further than the reasons for having governments at all. Besides providing basic services, which they are increasingly privatising or contracting out, governments redistribute wealth and resources. They have social policies and programs to fix poverty, fix crime, fix health, fix schooling, fix housing, fix anything and everything - just trust them one more time. Once resources become abundant, however, most people will choose to fix things for themselves.

Representative democracy becomes unnecessary in conditions of abundance. That's the problem for profiteers and politicians facing the 2nd Renaissance. They must impede insights and developments that lead to abundance, and promote the old notions of economic scarcity.

While vested interests and governments have, so far, succeeded in constraining the production and distribution of food, the challenge of doing the same for energy, and for the almost costless consumer goods that will result from nanofacture, will be more difficult. In due course the challenge of suppressing knowledge and abundance will prove impossible.

New Science - New Civilization [19]
During the Dark Ages, in Europe, the scientific theories used to describe the observed world left a lot to be desired. The Roman Church was the final arbiter on all scientific explanations of nature, matter, life and the heavens. At the time, it was held that the Earth was the centre of a limited universe, the Sun was said to travel across the heavens, and the number of stars in the firmament was seen as fixed and unchanging. Until Galileo Galilei, science followed the teachings of Aristotle in physics, and it was considered that heavier objects fell faster than lighter ones.

The first Renaissance produced a wave of new thinking and theories and led to the science that is now taught as "modern". By the start of the 20th century it was thought, by some scientists, that all that could be explained in the physical sciences had been discovered. But, during the 1900s, and particularly following the introduction of powerful and widely available computers, the "modern" theories and explanations of science began to be challenged and radically revised.

Much of this new science involves explanations and theories that are counterintuitive. Quite early in the 20th century Niels Bhor remarked that anyone who isn't shocked by quantum mechanics has not understood it. The trend of uncovering previously undreamed of levels of complexity in nature that are governed by elegantly simple constructs continues at an ever-increasing rate. New scientific theories and new insights are spawning previously unimaginable new technologies, that will inevitably lead to a global abundance of physical resources and material goods.

The new technologies will also raise the level of information available to the incoming civilization to about 1025 bits. This is the level, calculated by Douglas Robertson, at which a Level 4 Civilization will operate. As noted above, it is not only the explosion of information that is so empowering, but the expectation that new technologies will enable the entire stock of knowledge to be accessed.

A Magic Age [20]
Although information is the foundation for a higher level civilization, we are not entering an "information age". Rolf Jensen, director of the Institute of Future Studies in Copenhagen, contends that the information age is already past its high noon point, and that sunset will come sooner than many people imagine. He foresees that, as affluence spreads with increasing abundance, the stories behind products will become more important than the products or services themselves.

It is important to recognise that the information age that Jensen is talking about is the conventional Information Technology industry and its impacts on industrial capitalism. Douglas Robertson is writing of information at a more fundamental level, and his predictions underpin the ability of a Level 4 Civilization to emerge and function in the early 21st century.

The incoming civilization will run on a combination of information and imagination, but the present IT industry will vanish, or, more correctly, it will converge or blend with nanotechnology, biotechnology and other technologies that have yet to emerge. This conclusion is not so surprising when you consider that futurists and technology forecasters believe that 90% of the new technologies that will power us forward in this century have not yet been invented. All the magic is still ahead of us. In this context the enduring quote from the scientist, and science fiction author, Arthur C. Clarke, is very relevant.

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."

Science Drives Technology - Technology Drives Freedom [21]
Science is driving radical discoveries, discoveries are driving technology, and technology is raising the level of information to a point where a Level 4 Civilization becomes practical. Technology is also making information and knowledge widely available, and this has significant implications for human society. Just as "civilization is information", it is the case that "knowledge is power".

The first Renaissance freed knowledge from guarded libraries and made it available via the medium of printed books. However, because books are physical objects, they and the ideas they contain can be controlled. Big Brother in all his guises, totalitarian, democratic, communist, imperial, etc, could and still does ban, burn, and otherwise restrict, the spread of "dangerous" knowledge and ideas. This control is exercised in all forms of published and broadcast media, and it is also exercised by shaping curricula and content in state education systems.

Power can remain centralised while knowledge can be restricted, shaped and censored. The technology of the first Renaissance did not free the spread of information and knowledge to the point where it could not be governed and controlled in this manner. The technology of the 2nd Renaissance, even at this early stage, does free information and make knowledge ungovernable. Freenet is a clear example of this ungovernability of information and ideas, hence it is a likely target for Big Brothers everywhere. Unhappily for the tireless censor-folk, new science and 21st century technologies are making it impossible for the censoring and shaping of information and knowledge to succeed for much longer.

Science Is Based On Ideas [22]
The late Carl Sagan, who spent a great deal of his time presenting and popularising science, was fond of observing that, "We live in a society exquisitely dependent on science and technology, in which hardly anyone knows anything about science and technology". Sagan was speaking in, and about, the 20th century, but his comment is even more relevant to the 2nd Renaissance.

People are conditioned to the specialisation and compartmentalisation that became the hallmark of the industrial revolution and industrial age institutions. Consequently, they adopt a passive role in consuming scientific discoveries and thinking, most people accept what they are fed by institutionalised science and mainstream media channels. The general population waits to be told what has been discovered or developed. Worse still, they wait to be told what it might mean to their lives.

When it comes to common sense and intelligence, most folk believe that they have as much as the next person, and they are happy to discuss and debate political and social issues with anyone. But, if it is perceived that an area of knowledge is technical, be it marketing, law or science, people will often defer to "experts" and be reluctant to discuss and explore the latest knowledge in that field. Yet, despite its undoubted complexity, science is based on theories that are simply ideas.

Everybody has about the same chance of understanding ideas. A non-scientist might not be sufficiently skilled or knowledgeable to design and carry out experiments to test a particular theory, but they can grasp the broad concepts and ideas that form the basis of that theory. Just as the first Renaissance was a time of wide and increasingly liberal discussion, the 2nd Renaissance depends on similar attitudes. This is particularly so in the West, because people there must initiate the process of transforming civilization, and raising living standards everywhere.

The Deep Ideas of Science Are Changing [23]
Because we are living in a time of accelerating discoveries in science, it is not surprising that a lot of the old ideas and theories are facing major revisions, and in many cases abandonment. A theory is only a way of imagining what causes something to be the way it seems to be. Once the observed facts no longer support the original hypothesis, a new theory is required.

At one time, the idea that the earth was flat seemed valid. When people observed the land around them it did indeed appear to be flat. Anyone who put forward the idea that the earth was round was likely to be ridiculed. Science advances by reason of imaginative postulations and subsequent efforts to verify or disprove these ideas.

However, institutionalised science is often an impediment to the acceptance of new theories. Once a lot of effort has been invested in a theory, and a great many reputations have been built on it, there can be determined resistance to a new idea that overturns the old.

The Big Bang is an example. Although it is a comparatively recent hypothesis, the notion that the universe sprang from a single point of immensely dense matter, is widely presented as fact, when it is simply a theory. When somebody develops a more verifiable explanation of the nature of the universe, as has now happened, there is a reluctance on the part of institutionalised science to accept, or even consider, the new findings.

The late Sir Fred Hoyle, who first coined the term "Big Bang" never accepted the theory as an explanation of the origin of the universe. As it turns out, Hoyle was right. He, along with those earlier thinkers who rejected the notion of a flat earth, has been vindicated by an ever-accelerating advancement and freeing of knowledge.

Revision Is Everywhere [24]
Not just the core ideas of physics and cosmology are being questioned, every branch of science is undergoing a process of re-examination. These processes are fuelled by the spread of information that results from the digital revolution. The revision and expansion of knowledge is leveraged by the power of modern computers to help researchers model theories and answer imaginative questions.

Revision and expansion of knowledge is also occurring in many other fields besides science. History, particularly the nature of ancient civilizations and their levels of knowledge and technology, is another area in which old notions are being questioned and overturned. Lisa Jardine, of the University of London, is the author of Worldly Goods - A New History of the Renaissance. In her detailed examination of the period, Professor Jardine not only discusses the shaping of a new cultural identity in Europe, which is the focus of most texts on the Renaissance, but also details the way that new commodities and printed books created new levels of wealth, literacy and commerce. Hers is an entirely new interpretation of the Renaissance and what it meant to civilization.

A lot of textbooks and educational courses will need to be changed or discarded during this decade. By 2010, humanity's understanding of who we are, where we've been and where we're going, will be markedly different to our present knowledge. By then we will be ready to revive pre-industrial social structures such as tribalism. In the West, such revivals will occur in a completely new context, where the lifelong security of tribal membership is complemented by great individual freedom and capacity to do good in the world.

The first Renaissance saw a revival of patronage in the arts, after the Dark Ages in Europe. There was also a marked increase in prosperity and living standards. It was new prosperity, and a greater willingness to reform and improve society as a whole, that led to a new generosity and liberalism in the later stages of the Renaissance.

The growing abundance that results from the 2nd Renaissance will, similarly, foster a new ethos that directs surpluses to needy people, rather than destroying output that cannot be sold. This will represent a major revision of the capitalist mentality of letting market forces allocate goods and services.

Zero Pricing and REALLY Free Markets [25]
Taker thinking is so pervasive in our present civilization that hardly anyone is conscious of it. This causes difficulty in accepting the notion that anything that is manufactured could be distributed freely or that anyone would be prepared to provide their services at no cost.

However, almost anything that is truly abundant is already free, it is only the traditional scarcity of economic resources, and the prevalence of payment for service, that causes prices and markets to operate. Air is free, a walk along a beach is free, sunsets are free, moonlight is free, if you can use a line or net fish are free. All these things are free because they are abundant.

Because the store of human interest and kindness is huge, a significant proportion of the work performed in our present society is voluntary and unpaid. One of the better characteristics of the United States is the level of philanthrophy that exists there. Having struggled to build their fortunes in highly competitive markets, many successful American entrepreneurs then give much of their wealth away. They endow universities and research projects that would otherwise, in a market driven economy, not attract such funding.

In many ways the actions of an entrepreneurial class in providing funds for science and research are a far more efficient mechanism than a reliance on government agencies to fulfil this role. When entrepreneurs give their money and volunteers give their time to not-for-profit undertakings we see a glimpse of what can happen in a situation of abundant resources and manufactured goods. Individuals, not governments, donate their personal time and interest to helping others, or the environment, or the animals, in whatever way they choose.

When scarcity is not a constraint, human interest and kindness drive the distribution of products and services.

Limits To Growth Arguments [26]
Both Douglas Robertson and Daniel Quinn struggle with the concept of abundance and population growth. They seem sure that, if human populations explode as a result of abundance and the prolongation of lifespans, there will be a point at which a limit will be reached. The phenomenon is common, it is observable in everything from insect plagues to algal blooms. Eventually a point is reached at which the growing population exceeds the capacity of the environment to sustain it, and the exponential growth curve comes, literally, to a dead stop.

Robertson puts the argument thus. "The existence of a finite limiting resource places a fundamental mathematical limit on growth." It is human to expect and anticipate limits and boundaries of some sort. We have great difficulty visualising more than three dimensions, and also in imagining infinity. We always assume that there are limits, but in reality they might not be there.

Science is on the threshold of gaining mastery over matter, of being capable of transforming any element or molecule into any other. Once this mastery is achieved, the question will be one of whether there are finite limits to the number of atoms and the amount of energy required to convert them.

In a practical sense, various scientists and technologists answer the question of whether there will be limits to the levels of human population that are sustainable, with another question: - "What makes you think we are going to stay on Earth?"

Comprehending Zero and Infinity [27]
The notions of zero and infinity, are difficult concepts to visualise, even for gifted mathematicians. It is hard to comprehend nothingness and endlessness.

Georg Cantor (1845-1918), by his origination of modern set theory and his studies of the nature of infinity, left science a valuable legacy. Cantor was regularly admitted to a psychiatric clinic within the University of Halle, in Germany, where he lectured and worked as a Professor of Mathematics. On each occasion that he became ill he had been thinking about infinity and the continuum hypothesis. Such intense thought, at the boundaries of his comprehension, caused Cantor to suffer repeated mental breakdowns. Infinity drove him mad.

Yet, the question of whether there is an end to the universe, or whether it extends infinitely, without limits, is a vital one. Mathematicians have understood, from very early times, that numbers extend infinitely, but what about physical matter?

Countable Matter and Numbers [28]
Despite a widespread belief that numbers are entirely a human invention, it turns out that the natural numbers, and their reciprocals, are inherent in matter and space. This is not a new idea, the knowledge is contained in early religious texts and reflected in the words of Leopold Kronecker, "God made the integers and all the rest is the work of man."

Finally, in the closing stages of the 20th century, a German chemist and independent researcher of the underlying order in nature and the universe, succeeded in proving the threefold characteristic of infinity. The results of forty years of inquiry and contemplation of what he came to term the Prime Number Cross, enabled Dr Peter Plichta to show that infinity is a plan, or framework, built from "space, time and the set of all successive numbers 0, 1, 2, 3 ...., which never ends."

In an example of the inherently countable nature of matter, Plichta uses an illustration from his schooldays. If one square tile is laid down there is one object, in order to create a larger square three more tiles must be used, a still larger square requires an additional five tiles, and an even larger one needs seven more tiles. The point of the illustration is twofold, firstly it demonstrates that number is a property of grouped objects. You can use whatever labels you like, one, two, or goo, zoo, to label the steps of quantity, but the steps exist physically. The labels are human inventions but the steps of quantity are not. Secondly, arranging tiles in this way demonstrates Newton's reciprocal square law. This is done, as Plichta says, in a manner that makes the most important law of physics "comprehensible to ten-year olds." The explanation goes, 1=12, 1+3=4=22, 1+3+5=9=32, 1+3+5+7=16=42, and so on, to infinity.

God's Secret Formula [29]
Least the reader of this freesite think that it is dedicated to championing religion over scientific rationalism, this is the time to point out that Dr Plichta, in his book God's Secret Formula - Deciphering The Riddle Of The Universe And The Prime Number Code, provides a new and profound insight that forces the modification of both creationist and evolutionist positions. The creationists are probably wrong in asserting a literal interpretation of the biblical account of the beginning of our world, but they are right about the existence of God. The evolutionists are certainly wrong in claiming that chance and coincidence govern the universe, but they are probably right about the existence of evolutionary processes.

Professor Rupert Lay is the head of the Jesuit Order in Germany and he reviewed both of Peter Plichta's books. God's Secret Formula is the popular science version of Plichta's findings, and The Prime Number Cross is a scientific volume that is only available in the German language. Professor Lay has doctorates in physics, theology and philosophy, and has also studied psychology and economics to degree level. His comments on the two books included the following statement.

"The content is mathematically flawless. For the first time in the history of humanity, the scientific studies of Dr Plichta provide a foundation for our physical world view. Everything that preceded Plichta - from Newton to Einstein - was only theory."

But, Professor Lay's comments notwithstanding, readers should not rush out to buy God's Secret Formula in the expectation that it will fully enlighten them in a single reading. Reviews of the book on the Internet are mixed. It seems that many people find the story of the forty years of research and discovery that is mingled with the actual findings about the prime numbers, far too rambling and somewhat conceited. The other way to look at Plichta's account is to recognise that he is providing the full story to ensure that the reader comes to realise how hard it was to achieve the understanding that he eventually reached.

As the story is written, nobody can be under the misapprehension that it was an easy path to discovery, or that Plichta could have whipped up the idea one afternoon in the local beer garden. This was difficult groundbreaking thought, many famous scientists and mathematicians had found the clues before Plichta did, but they had failed to recognise their real meaning.

As for conceit, it is clear from his account of his path to the full discovery of the nature of the Prime Number Cross, that Plichta believes that he has certain gifts, and that he was destined to discover what he has discovered. He does not claim to be a genius, just someone with a deep inquisitiveness that was combined with an ability to grasp difficult concepts. Given Dr Plichta's eventual accomplishments, this is difficult to deny. When the history of the 21st century is written Peter Plichta will rank as one of the great scientific minds of the 2nd Renaissance. But for the moment, he is being ignored.

Institutionalised Science Always Drags Its Feet [30]
Imagine that you are an eminent scientist and that your field in the Flat Earth Law. You have, in good faith and with genuine belief, developed and extended the theory of a flat earth. You have conducted many experiments and verified, at the maximum distances that a theodolite can be used, that the observed data fit the hypothesis of flatness. You have gained academic tenure at a prestigious university and risen to become a professor, on the basis of your research and publications regarding the Flat Earth Law. You enjoy generous funding for your work and you travel widely to lecture on it.

Then someone publishes the facts on the spherical nature of the earth, and consigns the Flat Earth Law to the scrap heap of scientific ideas. Will you applaud the new findings? If not, will you challenge them? How indeed can you deny the new evidence when it is so verifiable? No, you had better just ignore it, and go on for as long as you can, propounding and teaching the false Flat Earth Law.

When Albert Einstein emigrated to the US in 1933 he found that hardly anybody was interested in his theories of relativity. It was only after the use of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 1945, that Einstein's work gained popular attention there. In pre-war Germany his theories were totally censored.

The Prime Number Cross Revises Many Fields of Knowledge [31]
Plichta writes that, "The solution to the quest for the origins of the material world is characterised by simplicity, clarity and an irresistible elegance." It sounds improbable at first encounter, but Plichta's work shows that our physical world is the result of the distribution of prime numbers. To many people, this is far too mystical a finding.

Plichta is a talented chemist, with a number of key discoveries and patents to his credit, and he notes that in chemistry there is a similar reluctance to be associated with anything metaphysical or other-worldly. He observes that, "Nothing is ever heard of the history of chemistry at our universities. On the contrary, chemists are collectively ashamed of their history which is peopled by magicians, charlatans and mystics."

Although Plichta does not draw direct comparisons between his findings and the knowledge of the ancients, parallels are likely to exist. Already, there is a link being made to a mathematical code of the Quran, and it would seem that the mathematics of the ancient Egyptians, the Sumerians, and possibly other civilizations, might be examined for connections. If connections are found, much of our knowledge of ancient history will need to be revised.

Needless to say, vast areas of the exact sciences must now be rewritten. While the empirical findings in fields such as quantum mechanics and cosmology will stand, the theoretical explanations will be swept away. All the texts and curricula will contain erroneous theories that must now be corrected.

There are enormous implications for education systems. Developed countries will have a greater problem than less developed areas, because their educational institutions are more deeply mired in the old, and now superseded, knowledge. Similarly, the research institutions of the West have more academics with heavy intellectual investments in theories that are destroyed by Plichta's findings. What were previously the most advanced scientific centres will take longer to reform themselves than those that have made less progress down what have now been shown to be false theoretical paths.

Public Education Is In Crisis [32]
Even in the closing stages of our Level 3 Civilization, the old factors of production are giving way to new factors. Wealth and living standards used to depend on the efficient use of land, labour, and capital. Knowledge, imagination, and talent are now more significant to economic success. Once we move to a Level 4 Civilization these factors will be even more vital. Sadly, most governments in the West have made a colossal mess of public education systems.

A frank critique of the US system, albeit from the mid 70s, is recorded in Thinking For A Living, by Ray Marshall and Marc Tucker. The situation described in this book still applies in Australia and other developed countries that geared their schools and technical colleges to deliver a factory fodder education, and then neglected to change and reform them as the soft, knowledge centred, sectors of their economies became more important than the old industries. Thus, we see Ministers of Education trumpeting their funding of industrial skills based learning and apprenticeship schemes, at the same time that informed scientists and technologists are contemplating nanofacture and the elimination of all procedural human work from factories.

The public education systems were and are wrongly targeted. They taught the wrong knowledge, even before the impacts of new science. Now, Plichta's discoveries necessitate extensive revisions of texts and curricula, and major retraining of teachers and academics. There is no likelihood of the necessary reforms of public education being completed in time to meet the education needs of the children now being born, let alone those who are already in the various systems.

Access to new education that is based on the new knowledge required to work and contribute in the 21st century is set to become the major issue for parents everywhere. Those who can afford to will be forced to seek solutions outside the various state education systems.

There will be a huge opportunity for emerging city states to provide educational facilities that are suited to the magic age, and thus attract well-off families to live and contribute within their precincts. There are already growing home-schooling movements in many Western nations, and this trend is sure to continue. Although national and state governments are likely to curtail or totally ban education of this sort - because it removes young minds from the sphere of government influence - the eventual outcome of the struggle between state education systems and home-schooling collectives is in no doubt. The old schooling institutions will soon become irrelevant and unpatronised.

Knowledge Weeds and Strange New Seeds [33]
Throughout the entire lifetimes of everyone who is presently alive on this planet, education systems have been planting knowledge in our societies. It is now being discovered that in many cases the plantings were based on incorrect theories and assumptions. Instead of productive fields of soundly based understanding, the knowledge gardens of the present-day are overrun with weeds.

One factor that is delaying the eradication of the old knowledge weeds is the counterintuitive nature of the new science that is driving us forward, to a higher level of civilization. Much of the new knowledge is decidedly strange. Plichta's work illustrates this difficulty quite clearly. Most people can cope well enough with the broad findings that he draws from the Prime Number Cross. Such as, "...Einstein's equation not only connects the three most important physical dimensions which we perceive with our senses (matter, energy and quantity) but also the reverse of these dimensions (space, time and numerical sequence)." There are equations and logic that non-mathematicians can follow, to show these relationships, as well as mathematical proofs for scientists and mathematicians who require them.

However, the implications of the broad findings are more difficult for people to accept, despite the fact that they are so soundly based. For example, Plichta notes that while physicists presently accept that matter is composed of bundles of energy, his reasoning was very different.

He firstly concluded that magnetic energy could not remain static. Electro magnetic energy has no option but to expand at the speed of light. He also reasoned that, "If matter did not exist, not one single atom, there would also be no space. But if only the two of them can exist at the same time, then one would have to be the other, only reversed. When there is no movement, there is also no time. Energy can therefore be nothing else than the reverse of time. The only way to connect space and time is to bring them down to their reciprocal dimensions, matter and energy. In order that no nonsense emerges in this procedure, there must be a plan, and this must be the only one that exists - the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ... as ordered by the Prime Number Cross."

These explanations are not presently taught in our schools and universities. Before they are taught, people will have to grapple with the new insights and come to terms with their strangeness.

Puzzling Facts [34]
Albert Einstein once said that, "You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother." His theories of relativity are undoubtedly difficult for ordinary people to grasp. How can one readily convince one's grandmother that, as the speed of any spacecraft increases, its length reduces and time slows down relative to the time of an observer on the Earth? Despite the fact that both these predictions have been experimentally verified, it is still hard to explain such notions to Granny.

So it is with some of Plichta's findings, the strangeness of the ideas prevents then being easily comprehended. For example, Plichta discovered what he terms a "3-to-the-power-of-4-law" of which the product is the natural number 81, as in 3x3x3x3=34=81. He also found that, "The material that occurs in space and was certainly not generated magically there only fits there if it is constructed according to those regular laws in which the space is arranged, just as a key only fits into a special lock."

Plichta shows that not only are the 81 naturally occurring elements reciprocally linked to each other via their atomic numbers, but that the reciprocal of 81 gives rise to the endless sequence of natural numbers that describe countable matter, 1/81=0.0123456789(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16) infinity.

The initial problem for Granny, and many of the rest of us, is that when the result of dividing 1 by 81 is calculated, the answer is 1/81=0.01234567901234567901... The numbers 012345679 recur endlessly and the number 8 is always missing. How does one reconcile the fact that the result of 1/81 turns out to be different from that which Plichta can show to be true? Non-mathematicians, like one's granny, will be unlikely to find much enlightenment in the proof of the correctness of the presentation. Although the Cauchy-product formulation that Plichta uses in the proof clearly shows how the sequence 0123456789(10)(11)(12)(13)... arises, Granny will still tend to believe the long-division rules that she was taught at school, and which any electronic calculator or computer can confirm.

Nature's Numbers And Human Conventions [35]
The explanation of the above dilemma is that Granny is applying human conventions that dictate how decimal arithmetic is performed. No numbers greater than 9 exist in the decimal system, so there are rules about how to handle calculations with larger values. As Plichta describes the situation, "The number (10) in the familiar decimal form increases the 9 to 10, and this in turn increases the prior 8 by 1 to 9. In the recurring fraction 0.012345679.. the number 8 is missing. ...The missing 8 is an illusion which had until then blocked my way to the novel notion that the reciprocal value of the order of all numbers 00123456789.. is the number 81."

Whether by accident or design the human originators of the conventions of the decimal system created a situation that effectively masked an important clue to the natural laws governing the formation and structure of matter in space.

Dr Plichta's work shows that it is not a coincidence that there are precisely 81 naturally occurring elements, notwithstanding the fact that students in our schools and universities are taught that there are 83 natural, non-radioactive, elements. Because of the structure of the Prime Number Cross there can be 81, and only 81, stable elements. Two of the 83 elements that are termed "natural" are in fact unstable and quickly break down into other elements. The two unstable elements are Technetium with an atomic number of 43, and Promethium with an atomic number of 61.

As Plichta observes, the unstable nature of elements 43 and 61 is glossed over by institutionalised science, and in the glossing over one of the keys to understanding matter and the universe has been obscured from most of humanity. There were by convention 83 natural elements, and while this teaching persisted the door to ultimate knowledge remained closed.

Rediscovery of Ancient Knowledge [36]
It is likely that Dr Plichta is not the first person to uncover and understand the Prime Number Cross, although his efforts are by no means diminished by this possibility. The priests of ancient Egypt held the number 8 to be sacred, and indeed its role in obscuring the truth about the number 81 and the infinite sequence of all numbers has been very significant. Plichta himself notes the striking similarity between the cross of the order of Christian knights, that persists to this day as the emblem of the St John Ambulance brigade, and the structure of the Prime Number Cross that he discovered through his study of chemistry and mathematics.

The reader must turn to Plichta's book in order to understand the structure of the Prime Number Cross but, in essence, the structure consists of 24 rays and constitutes a model of the atom and the basis for all matter in the universe. Plichta describes it thus, "Everything we know about the atom was discovered by observation and meticulous experiment. The Prime Number Cross corresponds to the atomic model and provides the theoretical background."

[The diagram "primecross2.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

In his book, God's Secret Formula, Plichta also quotes a passage from the New Testament book of Revelation translated from original texts by Professor Walter Jens of the University of Tubingen. This passage provides a startlingly similar model to that of the Prime Number Cross, but in the context of describing God and the number of creatures that surround him. The power of 4 is there, as are the 24 rays which become chairs with elders, and the whole structure is said to give form to all things.

Plichta writes of this model as follows. "There was a time I used to make fun of the Apocalypse of St John and believed it to be a totally unreliable historical source. Today I am filled with deep humility, perhaps because I am now able to give a concrete description of the foundation of the world as seen by St John with my mathematical discoveries, and thus possibly open a new way to all of humanity which has now reached a dead end."

The above should not be construed as support for Christianity in advance of other religions. Plichta does not necessarily view God as the patron of one or other form of religious doctrine, but as a design that exists at a higher level than we can comprehend. There are traces of ancient knowledge and hints of long past civilizations and spirituality in many present-day religions.

Megalithic Puzzles [37]
Most texts and courses on human history depict a slow, step-by-step, progression from cave dwelling savages to the high technology lifestyle of the present day. In this model each generation has more knowledge and better technologies than those that preceded it. There is no place in such teaching for evidence suggesting that earlier civilizations possessed more advanced knowledge and technologies than those that followed. Yet current research is uncovering more and more examples of such evidence.

In their book, Uriel's Machine, Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas describe recent dating of the pre-historic stone monuments of western Europe. Revised carbon 14 dating techniques developed by Professor Hans Suess of the University of California have established that these structures predate the earliest Sumerian and Egyptian cities. Knight and Lomas quote Lord Colin Renfrew, who had been Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge University, commenting on this finding. He stated that "There are no stone-built monuments anywhere approaching them in antiquity. Perhaps even more remarkable, some of these underground burial chambers, with their roofs of stone, are preserved entire, so that we can enter them and stand inside a stone chamber which looks today just as it did more than 5,000 years ago. Now the paradox is with us again: that such impressive monuments were created many centuries before the Pyramids by barbarians who lacked even the use of metal."

The puzzle of megalithic architecture was deepened by the now widely confirmed statistical analysis of some six hundred sites in Britain and western Europe, by Professor Alexander Thom. He concluded that a standard measure of length was in use across this whole area during megalithic times. Thom determined that the length of a megalithic yard was precisely 2 foot 8.64 inches (32.64 inches).

Knight and Lomas note that Professor Thom considered that a long-forgotten physical standard of length must have been in operation. In respect of the stone constructions that still exist across an area of 150,000 square miles they write that, "Thom felt that they were far too consistent to have been delineated by the use of measuring rods, created, copied and distributed across this huge area, as the very act of duplication would have introduced a greater level of error than is evident in the structures."

It was left to Knight and Lomas, with the assistance of another researcher named Alan Butler, to unravel the puzzle of how people 5,000 years ago maintained such a consistent standard of length in their constructions.

Three Hundred and Sixty Six Beats [38]
Knight and Lomas began their search for the solution to the puzzle of the megalithic yard by looking for a scientific basis to the standard. They write that, "The alternative to the 'ruler' theory is that there must have been a physical reality behind the unit which would enable it to be recreated by any individual who understood the underlying science. This is how the metre is currently defined - in terms of a number of wavelengths of a particular frequency of light."

Alan Butler had done research into the Minoans use of a 366o circle 4,000 years ago, and there seemed to be links to the mathematics of the megalithic people of Western Europe. Butler helped Knight and Lomas to find an astonishing solution to the puzzle of the megalithic yard, and probably the gaz unit once used in India. The latter standard derives from the Bronze Age Indus civilization and was standardised at 33 inches by the British government during the nineteenth century.

The method of establishing the standard for the megalithic yard is described thus by Knight and Lomas, "What the ancient engineers had done was to mark out a circle of substantial diameter using a cord and centre pin, and then divide the circumference into exactly 366 equal cords by trial and error. They had then erected two posts to mark out one 366th part of a circle, and swung an adjustable pendulum until it produced exactly 366 beats during the transit of a convenient bright star between the two posts. The length of the pendulum is now exactly one half of a megalithic yard, a basic unit of construction discovered by Professor Thom when he surveyed hundreds of ancient ruins in Scotland, England, Wales and western France."

The authors of Uriel's Machine summarise the scientific basis of the megalithic yard as follows. "The megalithic unit of measurement used at 'The Hill of Many Staines' and other sites up to 1,300 kilometres away, is a truly staggering concept of measurement. Professor Thom's megalithic yard was based on pure geometrics, derived from three absolutely fundamental values:

  1. The orbit of the Earth around the sun
  2. The rotation of the Earth on its own axis
  3. The mass of the Earth
The Earth's orbit gave the 366 split of the horizon, the rotation of the Earth gave the timespan, and the mass of the planet (gravity) dictated the length of the line to give 366 beats." All this seems to have been going on in Europe thousands of years before Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was censured and imprisoned for daring to assert that the Earth revolved around the sun.

Uriel's Machine [39]
Knight and Lomas did more than theorise about the basis of the megalithic yard, they reconstructed a megalithic observatory on the site of an ancient stone circle in West Yorkshire that is thought to have been originally built by the people of a place called Meg's Dyke. Using the circle and wooden staves to mark positions of the sun, the authors were able to verify the astronomical basis of the megalithic circles which exist at sites throughout Western Europe.

An ancient Jewish text known as The Book of Enoch contains solar, lunar and other astronomical information that can be determined using such sighting circles. The knowledge of astronomy required to construct and use the circles is said to have been imparted to Enoch by an angel named Uriel, hence the circular observatories are termed Uriel machines by Knight and Lomas.

Those who prefer to discount the reliability of the ancient text of Enoch, and consider instead that the circles were merely designed to tell farmers when to plant crops, must reckon with the evidence provided by Knight and Lomas. These authors point out that:

  1. The knowledge contained in the Book of Enoch was known to Freemasons long before the text was rediscovered by James Bruce during the 18th century, and does not derive solely from scholarly studies of that document

  2. Both Professor Thom's analyses and practical use of the reconstructed circle near Meg's Dyke show that a Uriel Machine is capable of determining, within an accuracy of one arc minute:

  3. Alan Butler has also determined that a Uriel Machine could have been used to determine the circumference of the Earth to an accuracy that was within 20 metres of that obtained today, using the latest satellite technology
Those ancient people were constructing and using an astronomical device that has been shown to be far more versatile and precise than any means of determining crop cycles would ever need to be. We must assume that they knew fully what they had built and what it could be used for.

By studying a 3,500 year artifact known as the Phaistos Disc, Alan Butler has established that the Minoans also had similar knowledge and that 1,000 Minoan feet were exactly equal to 366 megalithic yards.

Knowledge Lost - Knowledge Regained [40]
Crichton E. M. Miller is another researcher and revisionist of the historical record. In his book, The Golden Thread of Time, Miller writes:

"The creation of the present society began two thousand years ago with the persecution of millions and the deliberate destruction of knowledge that was in conflict with new beliefs. For two thousand years, free thinking people have been horrendously tortured, betrayed and destroyed by those who thought it in their interests to suppress anything that would be considered a threat to their control over the masses of mankind."

Miller observes that it has been all too easy for truth and knowledge to be suppressed or otherwise forgotten. He writes, "The majority of us do not question our teachers; we believe what we are taught is the truth. It never even enters our mind that these people in authority, with whom we entrust so much, may not be teaching us the truth or perhaps they are victims too and do not know themselves."

Fortunately Crichton Miller is made of different stuff and his open and inquisitive search for truth led to a startling rediscovery of ancient knowledge. He found that a widely known object held secrets that nobody in modern times seems to have discerned. As he puts it, "Our powers of discrimination are supposed to be for survival and yet we are unable to discriminate between a religious icon and a mathematical instrument when it is constantly in front of us."

The Cross of Ancient Navigators [41]
As a skilled navigator and qualified Royal Yachting Association Yacht Master, Crichton Miller disputed the common assertion that everyone in ancient times, including the Phoenicians and Egyptians, believed that the Earth is flat. He points out that in a vessel at sea, "You immediately notice that things disappear over the horizon as you leave them behind, and rise above the horizon as you approach." Some academics might argue that the ancients did not have ships capable of navigating out of sight of land, however Miller points out that seagoing ships are clearly illustrated in friezes on the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut (C 1503-1482 bc) at Thebes. He writes that, "The sail plan was very efficient and capable of upwind work... They are capable of travelling the world, providing that the ship's master knows where he is."

Since the question of knowing where one is becomes crucial for any voyage beyond sight of land, Miller sought to devise a means of navigation based on solar and astronomical observations. His resulting discovery was remarkable, a working version of the Celtic cross that not only provides full navigational capabilities at sea but also enables the accurate determination of angles and distances in surveying and construction.

[The image "workingcross.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

Prior to Miller's development of a fully working cross the concept was unknown and the Celtic cross was thought to be purely a religious symbol. Crichton Miller writes that, "This magical instrument that I have discovered, hoary with age, is not solely used for navigational purposes . It encompasses a knowledge of the cosmos, the use and understanding of mathematics, geometry, surveying, astronomy and astrology and it was used long before the ancient Egyptians built their pyramids. The secrets of this device were the foundations of ancient civilizations... It was the staff of magicians. I have searched high and low, in libraries, museums and the Internet, even with experts and engineers but to no avail, no one in the modern world previously knew of its existence."

The working cross that Miller constructed, using simple materials that have always been readily available, proved accurate to within six nautical miles of a position, anywhere on the globe. This level of precision is more than sufficient to have brought ancient navigators within sight of land, from which point pilotage could be used.

Pyramids And The Cross [42]
In surveying and construction applications Crichton Miller believes that the working cross was the one and only instrument needed to build pyramids, temples and cities in the ancient world.

He studied a pyramid on the East Coast of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, and found that it was, "..a combination unit allowing visual sightings of stars and planetary bodies at night, while permitting accurate angular measurement of the reflections of the sun on the ocean during the day and the moon at night. In my opinion it is a version of a water clock observatory. Its use would also be to find local time through astronomical observations to aid pre-historic mariners attempting a transatlantic voyage."

Miller found that seven-step pyramids could be used to tell the time and he suggests that this was the purpose of many such structures, including the Pyramid of Djoser in Egypt. Step pyramids abound in Central and South America, and the working cross could have been the instrument used in their survey and construction.

A Practical Teaching Tool [43]
The design of the working Celtic cross is faithfully carved in stone in graveyards and churches in Britain and many other places. The working cross developed by Miller uses a weighted circular scale engraved with two 900 segments. The scale rotates around a central boss and the weighted segment is always at the bottom, just as a plumb bob always points to the centre of the Earth. Sighting cut-outs in the arms of the cross enable readings to be taken from the scale and notches at their ends facilitate the sighting of objects aligned with the instrument. The working cross has so many navigational, surveying and construction applications that Crichton Miller says of it:

Miller contends that one of the best uses of the working cross will be to teach children the truth about history, surveying, map-making, navigation and astronomy. He says:

"Most importantly though, the children who will be taught about these findings, will understand in practical and common sense ways, how to understand the theory. ... I believe that my discovery is more for the children of our future than for us."

In an act of returning lost knowledge to present day Mayan people, Crichton Miller has presented a working cross to the President of the Mayan Elders of Guatemala, Don Alejandro Cirilo Perez Oxlaj. The instrument and others like it will be used to teach Mayan children the extraordinary knowledge their ancestors possessed.

Hidden Wisdom In Working Crosses [44]
In the work of both Plichta and Miller, it turned out that a cross, which had come to be regarded as a symbol and nothing else, had connections with long lost wisdom. The cross of St John mirrors the model of the Prime Number Cross. The Celtic cross derives from a practical mathematical and astronomical instrument used by priests, mariners, skilled architects, masons and various others. As Crichton Miller writes:

"Many of the stone Celtic crosses show the degrees marked out on the circular plate and incorporate the angles that are caused by precession and control the changing seasons. In other words the incorporation of the knowledge that there is a tilt of 23.4o in relation to the sun."

Metaphysical Knowledge Trails [45]
Much of the ancient knowledge that researchers are discovering is at odds with the prevailing scientific world view. Crichton Miller notes that the wondrous knowledge that existed in ancient Egypt, and in even earlier times, has often been suppressed because, "It has been deemed witchcraft, demonic and satanic."

However, this so-called occult knowledge is more likely to have been driven underground because of what it reveals about nature and the universe. The old, long hidden, knowledge leads directly to metaphysical conclusions. In particular, sacred geometry, and its related mathematics, supports the notion of a determinative mechanism in nature and cosmology, and therefore denies the dominance of theories and explanations based on rationalism, chance and probability. Those principles are at the very foundation of modern science.

Despite the rediscovery of the ancient proportion PHI, in Renaissance Italy, the spread of knowledge and thought in Europe gravitated to secularism and a predominantly rational and analytical world view. The briefly refreshed trails of metaphysical knowledge faded into obscurity again, and the stage was set for our present civilization to develop, and ultimately fail.

The 2nd Renaissance offers us another chance to understand and grasp the ancient wisdom of tribes who have since vanished from the Earth, but who left us astonishing legacies. Unlike the newly literate citizens of Europe who had only the level of information provided by mass publication, we have true global connectedness and a vastly greater digital capacity to generate, access, and analyse information. This time, humanity will not be denied the keys to the treasure trove of ancient wisdom and knowledge. We will follow the ancient knowledge trails to their ends. We will use this second enlightenment to accelerate our mastery of science and technology, and build a Level 4 Civilization on the ruins of capitalism, nationalism and militarism.

Ancient Geometric Insights [46]
Current education systems teach geometry in a way that denies pupils insights that could completely change their view of the subject. Throughout the West, both the secular schools in government education systems and those run by religious institutions teach their students that the ancient Greeks invented geometry. However, Plato and other Greek writers of the time freely attributed the knowledge to Egypt.

If one learns geometry the way the Greeks practised it, the knowledge is technically sound and practical but the experience is lacking in awe. The geometry inflicted on most schoolchildren is boring and soon forgotten. Unless they happen to work with geometry on a day to day basis, hardly anyone remembers more geometry than the theorem of Pythagoras. That the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. Some adults who work in occupations that do not embody the use of geometry might still remember that PI is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, but beyond that their recollection of geometry fades away.

If, however, one learns geometry the way the ancient Egyptians practised it, there are awesome insights to be had. These insights are not solely related to the sacred and spiritual nature of the ancient's use of geometry, but also the wondrous mechanisms behind nature and the cosmos.

PHI, Nature, and Matter [47]
It is one thing to teach a child that PHI is the ratio of any diagonal to any side of a pentagon. Or that the value of PHI = 1.61833988749894848204... extends forever in its decimal form, and cannot be written as a fraction. It is one thing for a student to realise that PHI incorporates a unique Golden Ratio, in which the whole part is to the greater part as the greater part is to the lesser. That as well as the ratio of one part to the other, shape recurs at each smaller and larger scale. But, it is a very different thing to comprehend that this proportionality extends into every part of nature, and to the human form itself.

Students of geometry are surprised to learn that the ratio of the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, to the distance from the wrist joint to the fingertip, is PHI. Similarly, the distance from the top of the head to the fingertip, to the distance from the elbow joint to the fingertip, is PHI. The ratios that apply to the lengths of the bones of the fingers, also incorporate PHI. This ratio is everywhere in nature, in every living thing.

The DNA of all animals and plants exhibits the Golden Proportion, and our hearts beat with a PHI rhythm. In cosmology, scientists have found PHI relationships between relative planetary distances, and between the rings of Saturn. Not so many years ago these facts would have been remarkable, but not usable in any technological sense. However, in recent times science has learned that the old assumption that matter is composed of particles is not sustainable. There is growing evidence to support the hypothesis that everything is based on wave forms, and certain inalienable but relatively simple rules.

The aptly named "Sacred Geometry" of the ancients is a good place to start uncovering and applying the rules of proportion and harmony that nature uses. Astonishing new technologies will develop from the insights that such research can yield.

Knowledge Rising [48]
The above outlines of ancient knowledge are not intended to diminish the advances of modern science in any way. In the space of less than 200 years scientific knowledge and new technologies have made truly astonishing progress. While great discoveries and inventions pepper the history of the 19th and 20th centuries, most of the knowledge and understanding that humanity now possesses is very recent. By and large, the new technologies that will enable us to build a Level 4 Civilization date from the period 1980 through 2000.

In the present day, new theoretical insights and technical breakthroughs continue at an ever-accelerating pace. The point at which science and technology move beyond further discoveries of the basis of matter, to actual mastery over it, is approaching quite rapidly. Importantly, it will not only be matter that is mastered. Life and the mysteries of consciousness and the mind could become open books as well.

No scientists still believe that matter is solid or that the only objects that we can possibly make or use are those that we are able to drop on our foot. However, most other people still think in those "drop it on your foot" terms. To the "solid matter believers" it is inconceivable that humankind will ever know about, let alone have control over the secrets of life and consciousness. They might grudgingly accept that some day, well beyond their own lifetime, future humans will eventually come to fully understand and manipulate matter at the atomic level. But the solid matter believers simply cannot conceive of that happening within the present decade.

Disbelievers in humanity soon gaining mastery over matter are in the majority, despite the overwhelming historical record of scientific discovery and the exponential growth of knowledge. In a similar misconception, most of the populace in the Dark Ages continued to believe that the earth is flat, while worshiping in cathedrals and mosques that were designed and built according to the Golden Ratio, and knowledge passed down from ancients who earlier navigated the globe.

So too, present day solid matter believers continue to doubt that it will ever be possible for humankind to know and master what cannot be seen and touched. They do this despite the many achievements of modern science in discovering the nature of the unseeable and the untouchable. The solid matter believers of today are as mistaken as the flat earthers were hundreds of years before. Knowledge is rising at an ever-increasing rate, and the doors to Aladdin's cave are about to be opened to all humanity.

Knowing the Unseeable [49]
Atoms are very small. There are many analogies that emphasise just how small these basic components of matter are. One calculation says that, "There are as many atoms is a teaspoon of water as there are teaspoons of water in the Atlantic Ocean." Another explanation, by Tom Stoppard, describes the emptiness of atoms thus, "Now make a fist, and if your fist is as big as the nucleus of an atom then the atom is as big as St Paul's, and if it happens to be a hydrogen atom then it has a single electron flitting about like a moth in an empty cathedral, now by the dome, now by the altar."

Gerald Schroeder is a scientist who thinks and writes about the increasing melding of science and religion. In his book, The Hidden Face of God, he notes how scientific understanding has extended into the realm of atoms, the smallest and largely empty units of the physical world. Science has studied the particles and forces that make up each atom and in so doing it has entered the non-physical realm of metaphysics. Schroeder notes that, "Metaphysics has entered mainstream, peer-reviewed, university-approved physics, though of course not by that name. In academia it's called quantum mechanics."

He also notes how quickly and radically scientific thought has progressed. He writes that:

"One hundred years ago, no J. A. Wheeler would have dared to suggest that all we see about us is actually the expression of condensed information. He'd have been dismissed as a mystic. But then one hundred years ago who would have dreamt that the solid world is really 99.9999999999999 percent empty space made solid by hypothetical, force-carrying, massless particles? And that even that minuscule fraction of matter that is matter may not actually be matter, but wavelets of energy that we material things sense as matter?"

Leaving aside the issue of the veracity of the theories that seek to explain the quantum or metaphysical world, the fact is that science is actively working at scales well below the limits of our physical senses. In 1980, two physicists working in Zurich, Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer, were the first to actually view atoms represented on the screen of the "scanning tunnelling microscope" (STM) they had devised. Technology is now rolling out new systems and products that make use of a growing understanding of the physically invisible world of the atom.

Knowing the Unreachable [50]
Light travels very fast. If light were able to travel in a circular path it would circle the equator of our planet and return to its starting point in about one seventh of a second. Put another way, an airliner that was able to travel at the speed of light would be able to fly seven times around the Earth every second.

The nearest star to our own solar system is Alpha Centuri, it is 4 light years away. That is the distance that a light wave will travel in four years, and by earthling standards it is a very long way. Yet, the farthest limits of the Universe that humanity can presently distinguish are some 12 billion light years distant!

Less than 170 years ago the French philosopher Aguste Comte pronounced that it would never be possible for people on this planet to discover the composition of the stars. He reasoned, incorrectly as it turned out, that the distances involved were so great that nobody would ever be able to get near enough to a star to determine what it was made of. But scientists used the distinctive spectral lines, emitted by all elements, to compare and identify the chemical composition of the stars, including our own sun. Norman Lockyer even discovered and named the element helium, as existing in the sun, before it was identified on earth. Today, scientists know that all the stars that are presently able to be seen in the heavens contain the same elements that comprise our sun, and our earth.

Individuals and Teams - Discovery and Development [51]
There is a fundamental difference between the way science advances and the way technologies develop from new scientific discoveries. Basically, inquisitiveness drives discovery, and acquisitiveness drives technological development. To put this another way, scientific discovery is explorative, and investigation proceeds according to the curiosity of the researchers. Technical development, on the other hand, is more geared to designing and producing something that can be sold at a profit.

Governments and philanthropic institutions are prepared to fund pure explorative science, provided that it fits within their notions of what constitutes science. (In the West, for example, there is scant government funding available for investigations into the paranormal.) On the other hand, corporations usually fund new technological development with an applied use in mind, and an expectation of a substantial return on their investment. The principles of industrial capitalism and the aim of building shareholder value govern decisions to invest in technological development. A prospective technology might be brought to the proof of concept stage within a scientific institution, but the idea only develops to fruition if it is commercialised.

There is a further differentiation between the work of scientific discovery and that of developing new technology from one or more scientific breakthroughs. Major leaps of insight and scientific discovery are mostly achieved by individuals, who work alone or with a few assistants. Successful technological development is generally a team activity.

Without meaning to be elitist, it is far harder to find the rare minds that are capable of revolutionary insights and scientific discoveries, than it is to find soundly qualified people who can make a contribution within a well led technology development team. Although there are now many more people working in pure scientific research than ever before, and although they are equipped with powerful computer technology and connected to relevant data and research around the planet, major breakthroughs in science are still elusive.

The majority of 20th century scientists spent their time embellishing and adding to existing knowledge and theories and contributed nothing to the quest for entirely new knowledge and understanding. The 2nd Renaissance will be a time in which greater emphasis will be placed on finding and nurturing young people with rare and precious minds, capable of original, long reaching thought and discovery.

Spirituality Rising [52]
As the 2nd Renaissance gathers momentum, greater understanding of our divinely ordered universe is driving a rise in spirituality. This is mainly happening in the developed world, because people there have greater access to the Internet, and they are better able to afford new books and magazines that spread the new information and knowledge.

It is highly likely that as new science brings mastery of matter, a knowledge of the sacred geometry of the ancients will figure largely in the processes involved. It is not a revival of organised religions that is contemplated here. The new spirituality has its roots in both nature and new science, as well as the wisdom of ancient peoples who seem to have understood the heavens and the metaphysical realm beyond our material world.

Crichton Miller believes that the cross is presently ".. An icon in the hands of religious leaders who have lost the meaning of spirituality", and in this he reflects the disaffection of many people. The young are particularly unimpressed with the human politics and human bureaucracy that have been layered onto an original spirituality, to create the organised religions of our present civilization.

Governments today are promising to create new jobs in the face of technologies that are rapidly rendering all work for hire obsolete. The young don't want jobs, they crave meaning and fulfilment. They are already turning to new spirituality to satisfy these wants.

A New Generation - A New Ethos [53]
Full time paid jobs are what the parents and grand parents of today's youth had. Earlier generations needed to work because of the reality of economic scarcity. The young people who will progressively master new science and new technologies will not have the same mindsets as their parents. They will unleash technology in ways that make goods and services abundant, at low or no cost, and they will free up their time for leisure and thought.

When resources are abundant prices fall and it is no longer necessary to work as long to earn enough money to buy the necessities of life. Then there is more time for other things, including new spirituality. People will read this statement and object that the promise of new technology has not been delivered in the past. It is true that new technologies introduced since the 1970s have not lead to shorter working hours and greater leisure time. In fact, for those who remained employed in the closing decades of the 20th century, working hours and work pressures increased. However, this cannot be blamed on any failure of new technologies. It was entirely due to the persistence of old notions of scarcity and blind doctrines of economic rationalism.

For example, the productive capacity to feed all of humanity, and to do it cheaply, existed then and still exists today. It was government-level quotas and controls that created artificial scarcity, high prices and high profits. The young do not have many traditional jobs in the controlled economy. Once they take over from the outgoing generation in scientific, technological and sociological fields, they can be expected to approach life from a different perspective, and with a new ethos. That ethos will be suited to the economics of abundance and the development of a Level 4 Civilization.

It will not be the rates of scientific discovery and technological advancement that govern the timing of any transition to a new form of society, but the rate at which young minds and new thinking come to dominate decision making. The advent of new tribalism can be expected to assist the process, because it will dilute centralism and open up opportunities for radical change.

The uncontrolled economy, will be largely free, and it will be the creation of the young minds and fresh thinking that the controlled economy could not find a use for.

Marie Curie's Precious Mind [54]
Marie Curie is perhaps the most famous female scientist in history. Together with her husband, Pierre, she explained and named the phenomenon of radioactivity, and also isolated two new radioactive elements, polonium and radium. Her exposure to the atomic fire during her work cost Marie Curie her life. But her discoveries, in 1898, launched new explorations of the atom by other rare minded people, such as Ernest Rutherford, and Hans Geiger.

Despite the fact that half the population of 6 billion humans on the Earth are female, males have been disproportionately represented in the annals of scientific discovery. This is not because rare minds capable of breakthrough discoveries are less common in women than men. It is entirely due to prejudice and discrimination in educational opportunities in society at large, and to discrimination in research funding within institutionalised science.

In fact, had Marie Curie had the misfortune to be born in any of the nation states that, to this day, tolerate the practice of female infanticide, she might have been strangled before she reached her first birthday. A Level 4 Civilization will fully utilize all gifted and talented people, including the female minds that our present civilization too often excludes from the processes of discovering knowledge and developing technology.

Caral, The Mother City [55]
Due to the painstaking and meagrely funded work of a Peruvian archaeologist, Dr Ruth Shady Solis, the ruins of an ancient city have been excavated and dated, at a site called Caral, an hour's drive northwest of Lima. There are six stone pyramids at Caral and the largest is five stories tall and has a base area equal to that of four football fields. The archaeologists who first discovered the site in the early 1900s mistook the sand covered structures for hills, but it was subsequently realised that they were too symmetrical to be natural.

As Ruth Shady's team have uncovered Caral they have revealed a large central amphitheatre, three sunken plazas, a furnace designed to burn an eternal flame, apartment-style housing and other dwellings that occupy an area of some 160 acres. It is thought that as many as 10,000 people might have inhabited the site. Shady believes that Caral was the religious and administrative centre for a culture that built at another 17 sites that are still buried in the Supe valley and along the Pacific coast. She thinks that Caral is the most complex site and that it was the centre of a priestly society that flourished in the fertile Supe valley in ancient times.

The significance of her find is its age. The unearthing of Caral by Ruth Shady could well qualify as the greatest archaeological discovery of the 20th century. Reeds in woven bags that were used to hold stones comprising the fill of the Caral pyramids have been definitively radiocarbon dated to as early as 2600 B.C. Shady believes that the site could be even older than this, because the reed samples used in dating, as reviewed and published in the journal Science, were not taken from what is probably the oldest area of Caral. Since it is around 5000 years old, Caral is older than any other city in the New World.

Importantly, the details of life there are not obscured by later structures or technologies built over the top of the old site. The excavations of Caral show no evidence of the use or knowledge of the wheel, writing, pottery, metal tools, or the cultivation of grain crops. However, sure signs of civilization are found in the monumental architecture, extensive urban constructions, and the existence of irrigation systems in the surrounding countryside.

Archaeologists now regard Caral as the closest thing to a missing link between a non-urban form of existence, in which people were nomadic or occupied small villages, and the precursor of the large cities we live in today. Caral might be the only example of a true mother city that will ever be found. It provides a unique opportunity to find out why civilization started. This is one of the most important questions in all of archaeology, and Caral could help Ruth Shady and her team to answer it.

A Thousand Years of Peace [56]
During the past 3000 years of recorded history humans have fought more than 5000 wars, with the 20th century having been the most bloody period of all. Given the seeming normality of war, it is not surprising that many archaeologists had subscribed to the view that civilization originated in response to the pressures of attacks by armed raiders.

According to this notion, the development of agriculture enabled grain crops to be stored and food reserves to be built up at locations that then needed to be fortified and protected by standing armies. Fear of attack and plunder of food and valuables was thought to have been the initial motivation to build cities and fortify them with walls, battlements, and other defences.

Ruth Shady does not appear to have been predisposed to finding evidence of weapons and fortifications at the mother city of civilization in the New World, but Jonathan Hass, of the Field Museum in Chicago, was a leading advocate of the theory that warfare drove ancient people to build cities. When he was invited to the site by Shady, Haas expected to find two things, evidence of stored food reserves that would have been vulnerable to plundering, and evidence of weapons, fortifications, and warfare. Caral did not yield any such evidence.

To the contrary, the archaeologists excavating Caral have found no weapons of any sort, no art depicting warfare, no battlements, no defences anywhere in the city or the valley, and no sign of grain crops or food stores. Instead they have found a large central amphitheatre, evidence of an eternal flame, and a collection of beautifully carved flutes made from the bones of condors. Although they do not appear to have developed a system of writing, the people of Caral evidently composed and played music.

A Pre-Taker Economy [57]
The archaeologists working at Caral have also discovered that its numerous inhabitants used an extensive irrigation system to grow crops such as squash, avocados, potatoes and beans. From the diggings, it is evident that cotton was extensively cultivated. Once harvested, some of the cotton was spun and woven into fine mesh nets that were then provided to the fishing villages on the coast, some 12 miles from Caral. In return for the nets the fishermen provided supplies of fish such as the anchovies and sardines that teemed in the cold Humboldt Current running down the coast of Peru.

Caral enjoyed an abundance of food but it had no staple agriculture of the type that led to the development of the Taker mentality that Daniel Quinn writes of. Archaeologist, Michael Moseley, has studied the fishing economy of the coastal regions near the Supe valley. Commenting on the findings at Caral Moseley observed that, "What you don't have is the fancy artefacts and all the other bells and whistles." The digs at Caral do not yield a lot of the accoutrements of rank and personal wealth. There are finely worked beads but no hoards of personal possessions. "People are farming or fishing. You only get a focus on personal wealth with the onset of staple agriculture."

Significant Achievements [58]
There are many points of significance about Caral. In its day, the city was the centre of a peaceful trading network that extended from the coast to the Andes and the forests of the Amazon. It was a spiritual place and its people built alcoves with dried-mud figurines in their homes, and burnt small sacred bonfires. Later civilizations did not occupy the site, but they apparently revered it and left gold and silver offerings at its perimeters and built temples on its outskirts.

The scale of the pyramids constructed at Caral is evidence of significant architectural knowledge and organisational abilities. No celestial or solar alignments have yet been studied in relation to the six pyramids, but it will not be surprising if significant alignments are found to exist. Nor is it too far fetched to think that somewhere under the rubble covering the 160 acre site the excavators of Caral might one day come across a working cross of the type rediscovered by Crichton Miller.

The site at Caral is of the same age as the megalithic monuments studied throughout Britain and Western Europe by Professor Thom. All are 5000 years old. Just as no metal tools have been found at Caral, the megalithic people also lacked metal tools. Yet they used the megalithic yard in their constructions and, as Knight and Lomas have shown, they built stone circles that are not only capable of creating exact standards of measurement, but of also measuring such values as the inclination of the ecliptic and the circumference of the Earth.

In due course, there is one achievement of overriding significance that Caral might well provide. One great contribution or lesson that can be applied to the 2nd Renaissance. How to live in peace, with spiritual meaning, and without warfare, for a thousand years.

The Slave Labour Hypothesis [59]
Despite the failure of the warfare hypothesis in explaining how humans first came to leave the simple life and develop complex, city based societies, some archaeologists argue that the pyramids at Caral had to have been constructed by people who were made to do the job. In a TV documentary on Caral, one of the scientists interviewed expressed this notion very succinctly. He said, "You can't build a huge structure like that on the basis of consensus."

This logic as long been applied to the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Traditional egyptologists maintain that slaves were used to construct the Great Pyramid, as a tomb for the Pharaoh Khufu. One estimate is that it took one hundred thousand slaves thirty years to build the structure. Assuming that the construction technology required considerable manual effort, the arithmetic might be correct. Moving and accurately placing more than two million blocks of stone weighing an average of 2.5 tons each would require many workers.

Although most egyptologists are adamant that only coercion could have caused ancient people to provide so much hard work, the hypothesis of slave labour is pure speculation. Despite its hypothetical nature, children in the present day are taught this information as if it is fact. Conversely, many real and verifiable facts about the Great Pyramid are not taught because they concern the sacred geometry contained in its design. These geometric relationships and symmetries are dismissed as coincidence.

The reasons that the Great Pyramid is such a wonder are as much due to its amazing geometry as its scale and majesty. Crichton Miller believes that the structure was surveyed and aligned using a working cross. He contends that the relics found in the lower north shaft of the Great Pyramid, a granite ball, a double hook of metal, and a short length of wood that is considered to be part of a measuring rod, are all that remains of a working cross.

Of the Great Pyramid itself Miller says, "Some try to say that it was built by slaves, but it was not, it was built with the kind of love and devotion that can move mountains. Musicians find inspiration from the pyramid based on harmonics. Geometers find correlations that are astounding and encompass all the geometrical shapes possible, including the fibonacci spirals and platonic solids. Mathematicians argue about the right angled triangles and the use of Pi. It is a source of constant wonderment to all those who encounter it."

Divine Motivation [60]
It might have been necessary to employ overseers with whips to motivate workers building a mere tomb, but the Great Pyramid is a divine structure. The motivation to build it was spiritual, and far stronger than any form of coercion could ever be. There are many divine structures that incorporate sacred geometry, but none were built with slave labour. The great cathedrals of Europe all employ the Golden Ratio and many contain pentagonal or fivefold symmetries. It was the Masonic Guilds, whose members were expert stone masons, having learned sacred geometry in Gnostic and Hermetic Mystery Schools, that built structures such as Chartres Cathedral, completed in ad 1260.

The Sultan Ahmet Mosque (the Blue Mosque) and the Suleymaniye Mosque, in Istanbul, are also examples of sacred structures that resonate with the harmonies and proportions of PHI and the geometry of the ancients. Both the mosques were built is only seven years (ad 1609-1616 and 1550-1557, respectively) by teams of Arab craftsmen that each built a section of the structure. It is not yet known whether the pyramids at Caral incorporate sacred geometry, but it is clear that they held spiritual significance for the people of the city, and the Supe valley beyond. Given a divine meaning, it would not have required any coercion to motivate the builders of the structures, their deep spirituality would have provided all the motivation required.

Back To The Future [61]
The people of Caral had ample food to sustain them, they had cloth for garments, they had housing and shelter, they had peace and a collective culture in which personal wealth and the accumulation of possessions played no part. Above all, these people seem to have had meaning and purpose in their lives. From the evidence of an infant burial discovered at the site, they loved their children, and presumably they taught them the truth about their world and history, as they knew it. No one yet knows why they abandoned Caral, or where they went. However, what is known about them could provide present-day pioneers of the New Tribalism movement with clues on how to live with, and master, conditions of abundance that will exceed anything that has previously existed, even in the Supe valley 5000 years ago.

Whether the people of Caral were actually as peaceful, spiritual and contented as they seem to have been is not important. What is important about the civilization at Caral is that it was Pre-Taker. If we are to survive as a species, and build a Level 4 Civilization, we must find a way to live as Leavers, even with the knowledge, and available technologies, to provide us with anything we could ever want.

Telling It Like It Is [62]
One of the first things that we must do, is to start teaching our children the truth. Not a mishmash of false hypotheses that are passed off as fact, but the truth as we know it. We must distinguish between verifiable fact and hypothesis, and never pass one off as the other. We must admit what is not known. Despite the rapid advance of knowledge there are many things that remain a mystery to us, these range from big questions such as the extent of the universe, to more mundane ones, such as how cats purr.

Many courses will need to be revised, many books will need to be updated or pulped. But the expunging of false or misleading information from learning and information sources needs to be done, and the sooner the better. In cases in which government or religious education systems and institutions resist a move to honesty in learning, and where academics resist the scrapping of deficient texts they have authored, there must be an option to place children and adult students in an alternative learning system.

Home schooling will be resisted by most governments, not because it might be of any lesser standard, but because it is sure to cut across what George Orwell called "the official truth". Internet based education will be discouraged for similar reasons. But, ways must be found to make the real truth accessible to all young people. Their possession of this knowledge will be a prerequisite for establishing a Level 4 Civilization.

A Language In Knots [63]
The Inca ruled an empire that covered the Andean region, from what is now Colombia to Chile. At its height the Inca empire extended for 3,500 kilometres, north to south. Although they build an extensive network of roads and large cities, the Inca are said to have done it all without a written language. This is most unusual for such a large empire that developed such a complex system of government. In fact, according to Douglas Robertson's ideas about the nature and scale of the information required for a Level 2 Civilization, it is most unlikely.

How could the Inca have managed to establish and govern their empire, between 1200 and 1536 A.D., without written records? How could they have controlled a vast system of granaries and warehouses, collected and recorded taxes, etc, using only their memories? It would have been impossible. But until now, that is what modern archaeologists have asserted. The Inca did not have a written language, that's the conventional wisdom.

Gary Urton is Professor of Pre-Colombian Studies at Harvard University. He believes that the Inca did have a non-verbal form of communication. Moreover, Professor Urton's research indicates that the record keeping of the Inca involved a sophisticated binary code, that is in at least one respect more sophisticated than that used by modern computing science.

The key to unravelling the puzzle of how the Inca kept records and communicated non-verbally lies in the patterns of knots, the weaving involved, and the colours used in the objects known as khipu. Although it was known, from studies in the 1920s, that some khipu used arrangements of knots that could store calculations, modern science continued to regard the khipu as being largely "decorative" in nature. Yet, there is a record of the Spanish conquerors capturing an Inca who tried to hide a khipu. When questioned the Inca told the Spanish that the object recorded everything done in his country.

Khipus are made of cotton or wool. A main cord carries various pendants, each with its own set of knots and ties. By analysing the patterns in the khipus that have been preserved in museums around the world, Gary Urton discovered that there are seven points in their making where there is a simple choice between two possibilities. Theoretically, there is a seven-bit binary code available to the maker of a khipu.

In addition to a basic seven-bit code, that could yield 128 permutations, the khipu makers used 24 colours of cord. This means that there are 1,536 permutations available to convey information. Professor Urton says, "Each element could have been a name, an identity or an activity as part of telling a story of a myth. I think a skilled khipu-keeper would have recognised the language. They would have looked and felt and used their store of knowledge in much the same way we do when reading words."

Until Professor Urton and his colleague, Carrie Brezine, are able to correctly decipher the code of the knots, twists and colours in the khipu, the notion of a unique, three dimensional binary language, remains unproven. However, work is proceeding and Professor Urton is hopeful that a further 32 khipu that he recently discovered in an Inca burial site will prove helpful. The newly discovered artefacts are from the period of the Spanish conquest, and it might be possible to match some of them to Spanish documents from the same period. It is known that the Spanish worked quite closely with some Inca khipu-keepers. Urton says, "We have for the first time a set of khipu from a well-preserved and dated archaeological site, and documents that were being drawn up at the same time."

Without a reliable translation of the khipu it remains difficult to convince sceptics that the khipu are anything more than memory aids for storytellers. With the hoped for breakthrough in translation will come evidence that the complex knotting patterns of the khipu are truly examples of the invention and use of a binary code more than 500 years before the development of computers. Urton believes that, "It can give us a completely different perspective on questions of literacy, on the nature of signs."

The Data Durability Crisis [64]
If Gary Urton and Carrie Brezine succeed in translating the language of the Inca khipu they will be able to read accounts that stretch back six or seven hundred years. That's durable data. Such longevity of stored information highlights a major flaw in the current digital revolution. Data stored on magnetic tape, floppy disks, and CDRs, is not sufficiently durable to enable it to be recalled for historical or legal reasons.

Whereas the khipu might have stored information for half a millennium, and acid-free paper kept in an air conditioned environment will also store data for such a period, magnetic tape and floppy disks don't come anywhere close to these recovery spans. Archivists and librarians all over the world are sounding a warning about the continuing problem of the obsolescence of digital storage media. They note that while the world economy has become digital, the half-life of digital data is presently about five years. There might be readable information on the media beyond ten years, but the technology is no longer available to read it, due to rapid equipment and systems obsolescence. A CDR disc is said to retain data for fifty years, but after a decade there is no longer any equipment in service that can recover the information.

This is a second great scandal in the IT sector. First there was the Y2K fiasco that added billions of dollars to the costs of all firms and institutions that use computers. Now the very fabric of society of the late 20th century is fading away without most people being aware of it. Data that is kept continually refreshed, and migrated from systems version to systems version on industrial-strength computer networks, is preserved. Much of the data that federal governments hold is in this category, particularly that collected by taxation, police and intelligence agencies. But most private businesses and other institutions have probably lost considerable amounts of their historical data already, and are sure to lose more in the next few years.

Already, archivists tell us, all the pioneer work done at MIT and other labs on artificial intelligence is lost. So are the early virtual-reality experiments, and computer models such as those made of the major tank battle in the first Gulf War. The data is probably still there but the systems that ran it no longer exist. A great deal of information is disappearing into a black-hole of obsolescence, because most managers and administrators are unaware of the problem. They assume that because various vendors in the IT industry have sold them computer systems to meet all their data processing needs, the backups and archives they have kept will be accessible in the future. This is not so.

Accounting and other records kept by many small and medium sized businesses, legal records kept by law firms and courts, property transactions recorded by shires and counties, medical records kept by doctors and hospitals, and a host of other information can no longer be accessed.

The Internet currently has a data half-life of only a few months, but new optical technology holds the key to future data permanence and historical truth. It will play a central role in the establishment of a Level 4 Civilization.

An Internet of Light [65]
While nobody can accurately predict the future, there are several obvious evolutionary directions for the present Internet to follow. Most IT specialists expect that the bandwidth and speed of the Net will increase significantly. Internet futurists expect that e-commerce will continue to develop until it is the main transactional medium in a global economy. Many computer specialists believe that the Internet will become more capable in the way it finds and provides information. These are all reasonable expectations, and likely to eventuate. But such predictions fall well short of the mark set by scientists and technologists who are actually involved in developments that will shape the future Internet. Such specialists see a light-based web ahead - well within the present decade.

David Nolte is Professor of Physics at Purdue University. He works with optical materials and devices and he already holds patents related to adaptive holograms, of the sort required to implement a fully optical Internet. In his book, Mind at Light Speed, Nolte describes three generations of what he terms "Light Machines". The 1st Generation - Optoelectronic Machines, use electricity to control light. These machines are already in service on the main long-haul networks of the Internet. The 2nd Generation - All-Optical Machines, will use light to control light. They will store data on holographic memory crystals. This second generation "light controlling light" technology not only exists in laboratories, it is beginning to enter service with telecommunications companies. Nolte writes that, "Transmission over 1 million kilometres has been achieved in laboratory demonstrations using solitons and TDM to support a data rate over 1 terabit per second. If past trends continue, such "hero" experiments may become routine and move into the marketplace in three to five years".

The 3rd Generation - Quantum Optical Devices, will take longer to develop. When they inevitably arrive, the 3rd Generation Machines will be quantum devices, able to store, share and process vast amounts of data, simultaneously and with absolute security, using durable optical crystals and fibre optic networks.

Technical Note
For readers who are not used to the arcane terminology of cyberspace, the following definitions might be helpful.

Presently, the Internet absorbs about 2 exabytes of new data every year. The amount of new data is growing exponentially. In terms of the quantity of data in the world. We are headed for the Level 4 Civilization that Douglas Robertson has foreseen.

2nd Generation Light Machines Will Use Holographic Drives [66]
Holograms create images without using lenses. Within a storage medium, such as a crystal smaller than a sugar cube, the data is held in stacked pages. David Nolte writes that, "Assuming that light has a wavelength of around 1 micron, an image of 1 square centimetre contains approximately 100 million pixels. If the pixels are digital, i.e., black and white, then each pixel represents a single bit. ... Therefore, in a cubic centimetre of crystal, there can be a stack of 10,000 pages equalling a total capacity of 1 terabit of binary data. Furthermore, if the readout of information is performed a page at a time, even if that readout is as slow as ten pages per second, it still corresponds to a data rate of 1 gigabit per second."

Holographic drives have other advantages besides their density and capacity. Holograms enable a major advance in data handling, instead of storing and processing text they can process images and remember every detail. A single reference beam of light can recreate all the beams that made up the original image. As Nolte puts it, "This is the general behaviour of holograms; they complete the picture. Whatever beams were present during the hologram recording are recreated when the hologram is illuminated by just one of the original beams." An analogy, if it were possible, would be recreating an image recorded on magnetic media, such as a floppy disk, from a fragment of the original media and image.

Not only is it denser and faster than the old electro-mechanical Internet, but a light-based network that uses holographic crystals and fibre optic cables will also cost less to build. As technology shrinks its cost falls and falls, until it approaches a costless (and abundant) level. A feature article in Scientific American, by Gary Stix, notes that, already, "The cost of transmitting a bit of information optically halves every nine months, as against 18 months to achieve the same cost reduction for an integrated circuit." The same article quotes a prediction by A, Arun Netravali, who heads up Lucent Technology’s Bell Laboratories. He predicts that, "Because of dramatic advances in the capacity and ubiquity of fibre optic systems and subsystems, bandwidth will become too cheap to meter."

2nd Generation Light Machines Will Perform Holographic Processing [67]
David Nolte makes the emphatic point that copper wires already transmit signals at light speed, and because of this fact, and its longer wavelength, light transmission through optical fibre is not inherently faster of better than existing copper and silicon based technologies. Where light can triumph is within the signal processing technologies, and this is due to the nature of holographic crystals. Second generation light machines can use data to control data, all within a totally light based system. The ability to intelligently process information in the form of images and symbols, rather than simply relay letters and numbers, is what distinguishes the second generation technology of light.

Writing in, Mind At Light Speed, Nolte describes second generation light technology as follows:

"The machines of light of the second generation move into a new realm, where light becomes the active agent of control. Everything we think we understand about the architecture of intelligence changes. The discrete transistors and logic gates of electronics disappear; in their place appear exotic optical devices of unfamiliar shapes and surprising behaviour. The replacement is not one-to-one, and even functions have changed. Nothing precisely resembling the function of a transistor or a logic gate can be found. Instead, new components, like coupled filters and arrays of mirrors or finely scribed gratings, become the elementary units that make up the new machines."

The All-Optical Net Is Coming Soon [68]
Most people think that an all-optical net, one that spans the globe with optic fibres, will not become a reality for many decades. The reality is that the "Lightnet", replacing the old copper and silicon Internet, will be rolling out within the next few years. It could be substantially complete, to the point where present optoelectronic technology is totally redundant, by 2010. The Scientific American article, The Triumph of Light, notes that, "Lucent estimates that if the growth of networks continues at its current pace, the world will have enough digital capacity by 2010 to give every man, woman and child, whether in San Jose or Sri Lanka, a 100-megabit-a-second connection. That's enough for dozens of video connections or several high-definition television programs."

But, it does not stop there. Data rate is one thing, but laying fibre and installing holographic technologies to support the high-speed links is also vital. Fibre-optic cables are already common in the West. In a period of around twenty years 100 million kilometres of fibre cable has been laid. This cabling comprises what is known as the Fibre To Curb (FTC) network. Copper wire still carries the signal the last few metres into your home or office. Taking fibre-optic cable all the way, as in a Fibre To Home (FTH) system, requires optical sub-systems and devices. David Nolte writes that, "The non-linear interferometer will be the fundamental element in all-optical control, just as the transistor was the basis for electronic control. ...Using these techniques, switching speeds up to 100 gigabits per second have been demonstrated in the laboratory. These rates are just the beginning. Higher rates supported by instantaneous interactions will allow the optical logic to smoke along at the speed of the data rate, in the best case up to 30 terabits per second." The latter speed is the rough equivalent of 600,000 volumes of an encyclopaedia every second. Nolte expects that non-linear interferometers will be in the field, supporting an all-optical web, within a few years.

David Nolte is a practising scientist, with patents on some holographic technologies, and he definitely does not expect that their wide use is decades away. He expects 2nd generation machines of light to render the present Internet obsolete, well before 2010.

The All-Optical Net Will Have "Weird" Intelligence [69]
Although it will be orders of magnitude faster than the old Internet, speed will not be the distinguishing characteristic of the Lightnet. The attribute that will set the new all-optical technology apart from earlier networks will be its intelligence. A non-biological, network of holographic information processors, with intelligence! Now that's a really weird idea, isn't it? But, NO, the idea of an intelligent Lightnet is NOT weird, it is a logical evolution of non-human information processing. Only eight years ago, in 1996, Gregory S. Paul and Earl D. Cox wrote a book titled, Beyond Humanity. In their account of technology and where it is heading these authors made the following points.

Given the extraordinary rate of scientific discovery and human technological capability in the late 20th century and into this present decade, it is difficult to refute the reasoning of Paul and Cox. We do seem destined to create intelligences that will not only equal our own, but soon outstrip us. Paul and Cox say, "The super-minds of the future are unlikely to remember the 20th century for its Manhattan project or the moon shot, for these were merely spectacular human stunts. Because information processing is the key to all other acts, the building of ENIAC promises to be the human product most celebrated by its cyberdescendants. They will marvel that a bunch of derived apes with computers made of jelly managed to cobble together a technological civilization and high-level physics without blowing themselves up like kids in a fireworks factory....They will commit the robotic equivalent of a chuckle at the superstitious nature of people who actually believed a great spirit of the universe created and fawned over them, and then demanded their worship in exchange for a reprieve from eternal torture. How little humans understood that they were not the creations of gods, but the creators of minds as powerful as a god."

Gregory S. Paul is an evolutionary biologist, and Earl D. Cox is a specialist in artificial intelligence.

Author's Note:
The looming reality of non-biological intelligence need not imply the obsolescence of human thought and feeling. Nobody, not even the most rabid technologists and atheistic scientists, believe that it will ever be possible to imbue super-intelligent machines with souls. Many of the people who are engaged in developing non-biological intelligences don't even accept that we each contain an immortal spirit. Other technologists and scientists believe, just as deeply, in the existence of the soul. But, for the present, they rely on faith and scriptures as the foundation of their spirituality, and lack hard evidence or revealing knowledge of the metaphysical realm. That situation, also, could change sooner than anyone imagines.

Intelligence In The Lightnet [70]
Writing in Mind At Light Speed, David Nolte describes the formation of the human brain. He describes how almost 2 million neurons are formed every minute, until there are around 10 billion at birth. Some of the neurons are joined into stable patterns that do not change throughout life. These hardwired relationships form the basis of instinctual behaviours, such as language. Other neurons remain able to be shaped into various patterns by both physical and chemical stimuli. These adaptable connections in the neural net of our brains form the basis of learning. We can converse and we can learn due to the arrangements of the neurons in our skulls. Once artificial intelligence researchers discovered that a three-layer network is sufficient to mimic all the logical and associative functions of a biological neural net, the foundation was laid for association and classification in computer networks. Machines could become capable of learning.

As Nolte describes it, "Neural networks eliminate altogether the explicit programming. This was a revolutionary step. A computer could never perform an operation that a human programmer had not originally conceived of and put into place. A neural network, on the other hand, "learns" to perform certain tasks; it is not programmed."

Further, Nolte writes that with the introduction of a "hidden" (or third) layer in artificial neural logic, between the input and output layers, "Neural networks also became members of the class of universal computers: anything that is computable should be computable using a neural network." He observes that the entire all-optical fibre network, "...with its power to switch and route and reconfigure, and its massive connectivity, may itself be viewed as a universal computer."

Even the existing Internet has potentially massive computational capacity, if it could be accessed in a practical manner. But slow optoelectronic interfaces hamper the direct connectivity of the many logic gates out there. Nolte writes that, "There are currently 100 million hosts on the Internet. Each of these hosts has 1 million logic circuits. That means that there are, even today, about 100 trillion logic gates connected loosely through the Internet. That is a number that exceeds the number of neurons in the human brain by at least a factor of 10,000."

Once the next generation all-optical Internet rolls out, the combination of FTH connections and supporting devices in which light controls light will remove the present barrier to the instant connection of all the logic gates on the planet. Nolte asserts that, "When that happens, the network will become a fast, fully interconnected neural network, with the potential for intelligence - true intelligence."

But when this happens, as it surely will within the next few years, will intelligence develop in the Lightnet, or will it remain a dumb servant of humankind, obediently fetching news, sending e-mails, and taking care of e-commerce transactions? Scientists working on the problem think that the Lightnet will become intelligent. Not only that, the Lightnet could become super-intelligent. It could develop into a system with more power and intelligence than its designers and builders.

The Super-Organism Theory [71]
One of the hottest areas of research at the start of the 21st century is swarm technologies. Instead of locating the intelligence for a system in a central "brain", it is distributed throughout the individual units that make up the whole. This is exactly what nature does in many cases. For example, ants, depending on the species, can have as few as 10 neurons in their brains, but their nests as a whole often have a social structure and organisation rivalling that of the largest human cities. In recent years scientists and technologists have taken that lesson and applied it in a wide variety of fields. As a result, technologies from communications network maintenance agents, to mine clearing robots and orbiting clusters of satellites, employ the swarm intelligence model.

Francis Heylighen, from the Free University of Brussels, has applied a somewhat similar notion to the evolution of the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web. In an article published on the WWW titled, From World-Wide Web to Global Brain, he writes that, "It is an old idea, dating back to the ancient Greeks, that the whole of human society can be viewed as a single organism", and "If cells aggregate to form a multicellular organism, then organisms might aggregate to form an organism of organisms: a superorganism. Biologists agree that social insect colonies, such as ant nests or beehives, are best seen as such superorganisms." Somehow, in a hive or an ant's nest, all the individuals in the colony have access to the total store of information possessed. Such a situation is also the hallmark of the coming Level 4 Civilization envisaged by Douglas Robertson.

Various thinkers, including Robertson and Heylighen, have recognised that external information sources have been vital to the process of social development and technological advancement. When humans lacked a written language they had to carry all the known information in their own memories. They used language, and myths and legends, to preserve knowledge and pass it from generation to generation. The advent of writing enabled information to be stored externally. People no longer had to remember it all, they could write it down and refer to it when needed. This ability to store information externally was the key to the rise of Level 2 civilizations. It seems that swarm insects such as ants and bees also have an external information storage capability, probably in the form of scent trails, and that their social organisation has been able to progress from individual to collective intelligence, for this very reason.

The present Level 3 Civilization is founded on mass publication technology that has greatly increased the store of external knowledge available to individuals and groups of individuals. But the old technology cannot offer access to all the information in the world, nor can it protect truth and prevent it being censored by governments and other parties interested in controlling what you and I can know and think. The concept of the WWW becoming a global brain and behaving as a superorganism opens the way to a Level 4 Civilization, by removing the limitations of mass publishing.

In a Level 4 Civilization, everyone can know all the information in the world, and nobody can censor or restrict access to it. Francis Heylighen writes about the concept of a superorganism arising from the WWW, and David Nolte writes about the light-based technologies that will soon make it possible.

Associative Memory and Reasoning in The Lightnet [72]
Associative learning is one of the keys to an intelligent Lightnet. Heylighen notes that although the present activity of adding and updating links on the WWW constitutes a rudimentary form of associative learning process, it is largely driven by human minds. In the Lightnet, it will be necessary for the learning to be automatic and free from human action. The Lightnet must learn to think for itself. According to Heylighen, associative learning mechanisms will then, "...allow the Web to act as a kind of external brain, storing a huge amount of knowledge while being able to learn and to make smart inferences, thus allowing you to solve problems for which your own brain's knowledge is too limited".

Writing of the new breed of intelligent agents and smart interfaces that will characterize the Lightnet, Heylighen says, "In the future intelligent web, such agents could play the role of external thoughts. Your thought would initially form in your own brain, then be translated automatically via a neural interface to an agent or thought in the external brain, continue its development by spreading activation, and come back to your own brain in a much enriched form." And, "a smart web would continuously check the coherency and completeness of the knowledge it contains. If it finds contradictions or gaps it would try to situate the persons most likely to understand the issue....In a way, the brains of the users themselves would become nodes in the Web: stores of knowledge directly linked to the rest of the Web which can be consulted by others or by the Web itself." Many biologists would say that this description is not too dissimilar to the "thinking" that already goes on in ant's nests and beehives. There might be nothing uniquely human about intelligence. Given enough neurons and effective associative memory mechanisms, just about anything might become intelligent. Why not the Lightnet? Why not in 2010?

Dreaming By Dynamic Holograms [73]
In his book, Mind At Light Speed, David Nolte describes the experimental work done by Dana Anderson at the University of Colorado, in 1984. The basis of associative memory devices in all-optical devices is the dynamic hologram. This technology enables an optical neural network to be constructed. Information in the network is not processed as letters and words, but as images of data sets. The network can store and recognise large volumes of such data. Dana Andrews added a mechanism by which decisions could be made by the network, independently of any external programming. His resonating devices gave the all-optical network a capability to process and prefer certain data to other data, similar to the way that biological neural nets operate. The all-optical neural net can then discriminate and come to prefer better matches of data images to others that do not seem as good.

Nolte describes how Anderson found examples of natural behaviour in the network that was driven by his resonating device:

"The output of such a resonator behaves like a person dreaming."

"If there are many different holograms stored in holographic memory, the output of the resonator randomly recalls one, then another - like dreaming, drifting undirected through the day's experiences."

"It was not only that the system could dream, but also that new modes (images) that were never stored in the holographic memory could emerge. The system therefore exhibited a degree of creativity. It thought up answers that had not been pre-programmed into the holographic memory."

Evolutionary Circuits [74]
Evolutionary electronics is a new field of scientific study and technological development involving the use of evolutionary algorithms in electronic systems design. Here, as is Anderson's work in holographic neural nets, there are instances of independent behaviour and intelligence at work in machines.

Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are electronic circuit design modules that can be configured as transistors, resistors, or various other components of an electronic circuit. Instead of using normal configuration software, under human control, Adrian Thompson of the University of Sussex, used an evolutionary algorithm. He generated 50 strings of random bits to serve as starting points for his Evolutionary Algorithm (EA). EAs can mate and mutate from generation to generation to evolve new software.

Thompson arranged 100 FPGAs in a 10x10 array (see diagram) and set a design goal for the apparatus. It had to discriminate between a 10-kilohertz and a 1 kilohertz tone, and produce a 5 volts output in one case and zero volts in the other. Given the lack of a clock to time the frequencies or sufficient components to make one, experienced engineers considered that the goal of the experiment was impossible to achieve.

In the laboratory Adrian Thompson used a process of selecting the fittest algorithms, killing off the unsuited ones and mating and mutating a new set from the fittest of each generation. It took 650 generations to achieve some evident progress towards the goal, and about 4,100 iterations to perfect the circuit design. From the 100 cells available in the 10 x 10 array, the final program only used 32 cells.

The final design worked well, but nobody knows how.

In summary Thompson observes, "Of importance to note is that these exceptional circuits have been evolved from a kind of "primordial silicon soup". No human design of circuits was involved. ....An obvious parallel can be drawn to the growth and function of neural nervous systems".

There were some limitations exhibited by the initial design. It would only operate within a ten-degree temperature range of the norm for the laboratory in which it was evolved. Also, the original design worked only with the array it evolved on. But, after further evolution of the design it could be made to work on other FPGAs. Rather oddly, the first apparatus required a further cluster of 5 cells, which were seemingly redundant. If these unconnected and otherwise functionless cells were removed the performance of the system deteriorated. Despite these limitations (which were overcome in later devices) the success of the experiment caused considerable excitement in Alife (Artificial Life) circles and has led to further work on evolutionary circuits at Sussex University and the University of Edinburgh.

The final design that emerged from Adrian Thompson's 1997 experiment was not of human origin, nor was it understood by humans.

Yet it undeniably met the design goals after several thousand generations of an EA had evolved it for an impossibly small number of FPGAs. Conventional wisdom has long maintained that humans are the most intelligent animals and the ultimate example of the evolution of intelligence in biological organisms. It has been considered that nothing of a non-biological nature can possess intelligence that is independent of human programming. But, those old axioms are looking decidedly shaky as developments like the Lightnet and EA designed circuits are progressed. It seems that we are not as unique as we thought, and that we might not be the ultimate development of intelligence. Spiritual consciousness, however, is a different matter.

Who Will Tell the Lightnet What to Think? [75]
It is indeed ironic, that in the same year that George Orwell chose for the setting of his, then futuristic, novel about the excesses of the ultimate totalitarian state, Dana Andrews discovered the basis for non-programmed reasoning in optical networks. As the Lightnet develops it is becoming quite clear that it has the potential to sift, reassemble and distribute knowledge and information at a level, and in a way that is forever beyond the control of any human Big Brother. 1984 was prophetically and scientifically a vintage year for free speech and free thought.

Presently, central governments can censor the Internet. They can block content from the WWW, and they can monitor everything we browse and all the e-mails we send and receive. Governments can and do shape the information presented on the Internet. They can and do pressure the various Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to do their bidding and assist their surveillance. It's all done in the national interest, of course. To prevent us knowing what they don't want us to know, and thinking what they don't want us to think. But if the Lightnet can think for itself, who will tell IT what to think? What if the Lightnet turns out to like you and I, and to detest liars and eavesdroppers? What will the central control freaks do then? How will the federal fibbers spread lies and disinformation on the web then?

Enemies of a FREE Internet [76]
While it might only be a few years until the Lightnet begins to take over from the old Internet, the present web must be kept as free as possible. Central governments and unconscionably exploitive corporations are the natural enemies of a free Internet. At first governments did not understand the Net, they believed that it could be controlled in the same way as physical borders are controlled. Now they are more aware of the true nature of the technology and many are channelling significant resources, both technical and legislative, to the task of constraining free association and free speech in cyberspace.

However, career politicians and bureaucrats still do not see where the Internet leads. What they tend to miss is the fact that the Internet, even as it is today, shows clear signs of leading to a world in which governments no longer matter very much.

Few people in the public sector are able to conceive of such a change, so they continue to misread the new technology and its potential impact. They are focussing on blocking out "undesirable" content, while failing to recognise that the solvent that will ultimately dissolve the paradigms of central government, nationalism and militarism, is gushing through the Internet, totally unimpeded. The solvent is information.

The Internet Fuels Thought [77]
An important consequence of the much greater availability of information via the Internet is that thought is stimulated and fed in ways that were impossible in the past. The change is very similar to that caused by the wide availability of printed books, in Europe, during the first Renaissance. The great bulk of the information being carried by the Internet is not revolutionary or seditious, it is not sacrilegious, it is not occult or satanic, it is not pornographic, it is not racist, it is not "bad" by any of the usual censorship criteria. However, there is considerable information in cyberspace that differs from the "official truth" promulgated by governments, institutionalised science, the mass media, and various corporate lobbyists and propagandists - the legendary spin-doctors and "snowmen".

Here is an example of an official truth and a real truth. Ask any school-aged child, "Who built the Great Pyramid?" If they have done a history lesson on ancient Egypt, read just about any book on the subject written by an Egyptologist, or watched one of the many TV documentaries about the pyramids, they are most likely to answer, "Khufu", or "I can't remember". The correct answer is, "No one knows". There is no evidence or any good reason to believe that the Great Pyramid at Giza was built by the Pharaoh Khufu (whom the Greeks called Cheops).

Why does it matter who built the Great Pyramid at Giza? Because this enables the construction to be dated from records of the reigns of the pharaohs. If Khufu had the Great Pyramid built it is about 4500 years old, if nobody knows when it was built it could be 10000 years old, as some researchers believe. If the latter date was to prove correct, the entire official truth about ancient Egypt would be in tatters.

There is also a phenomenon that can be described as the "official silence". In this case information is withheld, instead of being twisted the facts are never aired in the mainstream media or the texts prescribed for our public education systems. Often, the information that is obscured by the official silence is strange and thought provoking. The information could prompt students and scholars of all ages to think beyond the narrow bounds of the official truth. It could also cause people to question the actions of governments and corporations in developing, or not developing, new scientific breakthroughs and technologies.

Increasing Truth On The Internet [78]
The Internet does not need help from individual users or cybertribes to grow and evolve technically, this is happening already, and it is inevitable. What the Internet does need, from its many individual users, are proactive initiatives that make it a reliable source of information and an effective force in shaping 2nd Renaissance thinking. There are many ways in which concerned Internet users could collaborate and do things to strengthen these areas. Just two examples follow, there are bound to be many others.

There is scope for a reformation of truth on the Internet. A cybertribe of like-minded individuals could well become more influential in facilitating new thinking and attitudes in the 21st century, than Greenpeace and Amnesty International were in limiting the excesses of takerism, perpetrated by the outgoing civilization.

Keeping Freenet FREE [79]
In its early days the World Wide Web was largely non-commercial. Back then, the WWW provided information, files, and some software. There was not as much content as there is now, but it was free. Today, two influences are progressively reducing freedom on the WWW, governments are attempting to exert control over the information that flows there, and taker-style corporations are attempting to make us pay for everything we download. Despite the rich information content that has developed on it, large areas of the WWW have become commercialised, and all of the WWW has become subject to surveillance by the covert agencies of central governments.

Freenet is very different, there is no e-commerce, no advertising, and the information on the network is free to its users. There is a freshness that goes with freedom, and Freenet has it. Yes, it's often slow. No, it doesn't support searches. But Freenet presently has an atmosphere of collectivism, sharing and self-help that has largely vanished from the WWW.

This pre-taker ethos is valuable because it fits the 2nd Renaissance like a glove. Ian Clarke and the team have given us a wonderful gift in Freenet, it should never be compromised or diluted in order to be allowed to exist in the controlled economy. Freenet was conceived in response to what was then seen as draconian regulation of the Internet, by the Australian Federal Government. Now that The War On Terror has given legislators everywhere carte blanche to remove all vestiges of privacy and freedom of speech from our society, the events that prompted the birth of Freenet probably seem trivial by comparison. However, Freenet is even more relevant now than it ever was, and its principles must remain unswerving.

Freenet Really Matters [80]
Keeping the present Internet free is vital to an early transformation and a quick realisation of the benefits of a new age of abundance. An early transformation will mean less loss of life due to disease, starvation and wars arising from the growing deficiencies of the outgoing civilization. Freenet is one of the most significant means of keeping the Net free and open. Get over the fact that there is some evil porn on the network. That's irrelevant to the big picture. Freenet is really important to the imminent shift from a Level 3 to a Level 4 Civilization.

Go to the site and make a donation to help Freenet continue the good work. Do it today. Tell your friends to donate as well. Better still, become a regular subscriber to the Freenet Project and help smooth out their budgeting.

You will be helping to save many lives, both human and animal. The environment will also benefit from a free Internet and a rapid transformation to a society that rejects the disastrous mindsets of takerism.

Dilemmas for Taker Laws In Cyberspace [81]
Copyright enforcement is a burgeoning and lucrative area for lawyers. The middlemen corporations, in the music and publishing industries in particular, are creating considerable litigation work in their efforts to maintain their position between the artists and writers who create cerebral commodities and those who consume them. There are at least three problematic areas for the people attempting to enforce copyright on creative content on the Internet.

Firstly, the need and justification for traditional methods of marketing and distribution is greatly diminished by digital media and the Internet. People simply will not pay high prices for content that digital technology can deliver for next to nothing. Peer to peer networks, such as Freenet, make it impossible to physically limit the propagation of artistic and literary content.

Secondly, existing laws are founded on principles and precedents that relate to tangible things. The further that Taker law ventures into the realm of knowledge and ideas, the harder it is to pin down ownership rights.

Thirdly, the extension of the jurisdiction of local and national laws to cyberspace is most uncertain.

Quill Pens and High Collars Publishing Is Outdated [82]
When mass publication began there was a role for middlemen. The publishers edited, manufactured, marketed and distributed books that they accepted from authors. The authors provided their works in manuscript form. Initially the manuscripts were handwritten, later they were produced on a typewriter. Publishers were vital to the process of making the works of a wide range of authors available to readers, in a printed and bound form. Traditional publishing added value and readers were prepared to pay the high prices involved. The only practical way of obtaining mass printed books was via the various publishing houses.

The publishing situation is vastly different today. Authors now produce their works on personal computers, they can avail themselves of online editing and proof reading services, and they can publish direct to the Internet in several e-book formats. There are e-commerce facilities that will collect purchase payments from people who download an e-book. These services remit most of each transaction fee directly to the author's bank account. If they wish to, authors can incorporate security key technology to limit the use of the work to the purchaser's computer. If a purchaser elects to "lend" the e-book to a friend that person will not be able to read the work. When they attempt to install the e-book the program will look for an Internet connection, if it finds one it will contact a web site that provides key checking services and attempt to verify that the work is licensed to run on the friend's computer. When the verification service detects that the extended use of the work on the second computer is not licensed it will notify the e-book program and it will terminate. Details of the attempted extended use of the work will be e-mailed to the author by the key verification service.

The stealth technology that is used in verifying e-books is similar to that used by Big Brother to monitor everything that happens on computers connected to the Internet. As with all security systems, there are ways of defeating verified keys, but most people are happy to pay a small fee for an e-book and they do not bother to avoid the cost. They consider the price of an e-book to be reasonable, but they might not want to pay the far higher cost of traditionally published works.

Since books are a key element in learning, there is a significant issue involved in freeing up access to knowledge by publishing low-cost electronic works. In education applications, e-books can blend with multimedia and linked pages on the Internet to provide a level of presentation and meaning that is impossible with printed books.

Thoughts and Ideas Are Not Covered By Copyright [83]
Present law relies on attaching copyright to works recorded on tangible media. There are no cases based on the use by one person of another person's knowledge or ideas. When an author creates a phrase, such as "If they can get you asking the wrong questions, they don't have to worry about the answers", it is the arrangement of words that is the basis of a copyright, not the knowledge or ideas that underpin the words. The quote is from Gravity's Rainbow, by Thomas Pynchon. Copyright notices typically warn against reproducing a textual work in a deceptively similar form, but it is the words used by an author to express ideas, not the concepts and ideas, that constitute the basis of the copyright.

Copyright does not exist until the words are recorded on some form of media, be that a computer display, a piece of paper, or a magnetic or optical disk. All forms of media can be owned and physically traded, but thoughts can't. Even if an idea is "sold" by its originator to another person, in the way that a consultant might provide ideas or counsel to a client, the originator still possesses the idea and the knowledge it is based on. Literary copyright seeks to prevent the unauthorised use of arrangements of words that are recorded on physical media.

Plagiarism is the act of passing someone else's ideas and insights off as one's own. While plagiarism is widely regarded as unethical, it is not illegal. Plots, concepts, and principles are not covered by copyright. There are many spreadsheet and word processing programs on offer in the software marketplace, the code used to write each application is equivalent to the words used to write a book or article, authors can copyright their code, but not the concept of a spreadsheet or a word processor.

These brief explanations of copyright are included here to help readers to understand the points that follow.

Employees Create on Capital's Terms [84]
Patent and copyright protections were developed for the old economy. The new economy is built on the imaginative and creative use of knowledge and information. In this new context, copyright laws protect different interests. The old sources of wealth were capital and organisational infrastructure. Except in the few cases that authors or other artists were able to self-publish, copyright protected corporations. The new source of wealth creation lies in imaginative inputs. It might seem that there is no problem here, because the creative people who first conceive of an intellectual work, will subsequently progress it to an output state that will be covered by copyright. The law attributes copyright to the employer, even if an employee actually conceives and produces a work, so it seems that the ownership of copyright is unaffected by the new economy.

But there is a new factor involved, it is the growing independence of talent. Back when manufacturing was the mainstay of a developed economy, capital and infrastructure dominated business. When a journalist, for example, wrote an article as part of his or her job, the employer owned the copyright on the work. Individual journalists could not start their own newspapers, because the capital, infrastructure, advertising contacts and political connections required, were all beyond their capacity. Even if the individual worked as a freelance, the newspaper that bought their work would own the copyright.

Talent Creates On Talent's Terms [85]
The situation is different in talent centred industries, there is not the same need for an imposing office and a lot of infrastructure. In their book, The Sovereign Individual, James Davidson and William Rees-Mogg cite the example of a large US advertising firm that decided to operate without an office, using electronic links to the homes of employees instead of having people in a headquarters building, and hiring space in hotels for projects when needed. There is now little to stop talented individuals, or groups of such people, from setting themselves up in business and owning the copyright on their own work. In the case of new sunrise industries that rely heavily on creativity and imagination, there are real opportunities for individuals or small teams to follow their own interests, outside traditional corporate structures.

Capital and infrastructure don't dominate the new economy, talent does.

Individuals will increasingly opt to work for themselves, or for small collectives of creative talent. In either case, talented people will wish to own the copyright for value built from their efforts. For this reason, corporatism and managerialism are set to lose their monopoly on copyright ownership. Many individual copyright holders and talent collectives are likely to have very different views of the application of copyright than those of the old guard of transnational tycoons and their lawyers. A later segment examines this aspect further, but first it is appropriate to review the issue of copyright jurisdiction in cyberspace.

Jurisdiction Issues In Cyberspace [86]
Davidson and Rees-Mogg liken cyberspace to the high seas, they point out that no nation has been able to gain sovereignty over the open oceans, and they argue that it is similarly impossible to "own" the non-tangible realm of data and knowledge circulating on the Internet. Copyright laws were all formulated on the assumption of territorial control, but as the authors of The Sovereign Individual note, "Cyberspace cannot be occupied by force or held to ransom." William Rees-Mogg has sound foundations for his understanding of media content. He is a former editor of The Times, a former Vice Chancellor of the Board of Governors of the BBC, and a former Chairman of the UK Broadcasting Standards Council. In many respects, Rees-Mogg is also a 2nd Renaissance thinker and author.

Despite the inability of nation states to occupy or control the flows of digital data that comprise the Internet, many have attempted to regulate the physical entry and exit points. Some nation states have limited Internet connections to the outside world and blocked access to sites that they disapprove of. Others have sought jurisdiction over content viewed within their borders, but originated elsewhere in cyberspace.

An interesting Australian case, in 2002, involved a defamation suit brought against a US web site. The litigant sought to have the case heard before an Australian court, as he claimed that the defamation was most serious in his country of residence. The defence argued that the point at which the material was published was in the US (the entry point) while the prosecution contended that the allegedly offensive article was comprehended in Australia, on the screen of an Internet user there (the exit point). It took the High Court of Australia less than six hours to decide that the exit point was the relevant one in terms of any damage done by the comprehension of defamatory content. This decision meant that the major news service that published content in the US, for consumption in that country and within the standards of defamation applying there, could be required to defend a suit brought against the content in an Australian court, and under the more restrictive standards of defamation that apply in that country.

Moves To Globalise Jurisdictions [87]
If the Australian decision were to hold in other places any web page might be deemed to be published in every country, and the originators of web pages could have to defend them in local courts, for breaches of local laws and value systems. This leads to a global consolidation of jurisdictions, and that is what is being proposed under the Hague treaty, that continues to be negotiated by some sixty two nation states.

The ultimate effect of this treaty could be that many national laws are effectively globalised. Citizens, and journalists, of countries such as Australia, who presently have the right to criticise totalitarian regimes in other countries, could find that they can be sued in those nations and that the penalty, whether it is a fine or a jail term, can be brought home to their local jurisdiction for execution by their local law enforcement system.

While there is clearly an attempt by old empires and cartels to increase jurisdictional reach in cyberspace, the paradigms that drive it are outdated and there are many practical difficulties. Not the least of these problems will be justifying the need to reduce levels of freedom to the lowest common denominator on the planet.

Forces Driving Freedom [88]
There a number of powerful forces acting to increase freedom in the early phases of the 2nd Renaissance. These include the speed of technological change, the shift from tangible to non-tangible sources of wealth, the unstoppable nature of information flowing on the Internet, and generational effects on attitudes and values. Most importantly, the reality of abundant resources and energy completely obsoletes capitalism and nationalism, and leads directly to a Level 4 Civilization. While strong forces for change also drove the first Renaissance, they do not compare to the scope and immensity of the new waves of change that are engulfing the world. Despite the strenuous efforts that various central governments and global cartels are sure to exhibit in their efforts to maintain the status quo of the old civilization, the 2nd Renaissance will roll forward at an ever-increasing rate.

Fast And Faster [89]
During the defamation matter referred to above, one of the legal precedents presented to the High Court of Australia involved a libellous article printed by an English newspaper, in 1848. The fact that judicial institutions are grappling with issues and rights in cyberspace, using references from centuries ago, illustrates the problem now facing all legislative and law enforcement systems.

At a time when some technologies advance by one generation in as little as sixteen weeks, the laws and the people who interpret and administer them are applying societal norms and economic frameworks that no longer have much relevance. As new technology reshapes the realm of human affairs, it is becoming impossible for backward looking institutions and administrative systems to keep up with changes that occur with ever increasing frequency.

Change now has only two speeds, fast and faster.

It has already become impractical to specify and update laws on a national basis, but central governments continue to pretend that they can continue to control every detail of life, as their predecessors could.

Copyright and patent laws still provide protection for authors and inventors for very long periods. In most Western countries intellectual property is covered for the life of the author, plus a further seventy years. Yet, the practical life of a written work, such as a manual for a software application, might extend no further than the next product update. As copyright laws stand, an instruction manual for an application that is current for only a year or two can still be covered by copyright for a century or more.

In all sectors of the new economy there are now sound reasons to introduce shorter terms of protection, such as 24 months for instructional works, and 60 months for artistic works. There is no longer any need for long term copyright and patent protections, because in the majority of cases thinking and the technology move on in a very short time. As information and knowledge become universally accessible, within a Level 4 Civilization, copyright and patent protections will eventually cease to exist.

Small And Smaller [90]
Besides its exponential acceleration the flame front of new technology has another world-changing characteristic, new technologies come in only two sizes, small and smaller.

The dominant paradigm of the controlled economy was big. Big businesses built big production plants and spent big budgets on mass advertising and promotion through big media networks. Big governments ran big administration systems that controlled big wealth redistribution programs. Governments spent big budgets on weapons development and acquisition programs, and they maintained big armies to protect their borders and interests from other military powers.

The technologies of the controlled economy were also large and physically tangible. Solid matter believers could draw comfort from the fact that they could, generally, kick the technology with their foot. But it is not possible to do that to the new technologies of the 2nd Renaissance.

The dominant paradigm of the uncontrolled economy is small. Not only small, but so small as to be invisible, yet far smarter and more powerful than the mainframe computers that formed the core of big business and big government administration systems in the controlled economy.

Instead of using a single, central processor, new computing technologies combine a myriad of minute processors to create swarm intelligence. Instead of connecting specific subscribers to the Internet through wires and telephone exchanges, a Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) base station connected to a high-speed cable or DSL link serves all Wi-Fi equipped communications devices in range. Any users that come into range and switch on are served on a shared connection. Instead of products being manufactured in large industrial complexes by crude removal and shaping of materials, such as iron and steel, nanofacture concepts and developmental technologies build products from the inside out - atom by atom.

The effect of the wide availability of inexpensive new technologies will be to shift economic and political power from centralised bureaucracies and capital intensive corporations, to small groups and collectives that control their own destinies locally and affiliate with like-minded people in global associations or cybertribes.

Throughout recorded history, the morphology of dominant technologies has always determined the nature of the prevailing forms of social, economic and political institutions. It will be no different during the 2nd Renaissance. Nanoscale technologies will shape human organisation and prepare the way for a Level 4 Civilization.

There Is Growing Scope For Talent Collectives [91]
Although there is little to prevent talented individuals from banding together to create and develop new technologies, products and services, the incidence of such collectives in the controlled economy is low. Too few people presently see the opportunities that now exist to create and own wealth in their own right, without working for large corporations that take the intellectual property as their own, and reap the profits for institutional investors rather than the creative and inventive individuals who did the crucial work. But this situation is set to change as the 2nd Renaissance progresses. Davidson and Rees-Mogg make it plain that enterprises that generate wealth from knowledge and imagination, rather than the traditional sources of capital, infrastructure and physical labour, cannot be held to ransom by nation states.

Robert Reich, who wrote The Work of Nations, prior to becoming US Secretary For Labour in the first Clinton administration, came to much the same conclusion. Reich called creative knowledge workers "Symbolic Analysts" because they manipulate concepts and ideas instead of wrenches and lathes. He saw that symbolic analysts were globally mobile, they needed only a laptop computer, a mobile phone and the stimulation of contact with other creative minds in their field.

Reich understood that a creative environment in which individuals can meet, have coffee and discuss new ideas and technologies with colleagues is a vital ingredient of knowledge work. He identified what he called specific zones in the US where the right creative habitats had developed. Specialists in molecular biology and biotechnology had congregated in a cluster of towns in Arkansas; specialists in semiconductors had grouped in an area south of Portland, in Oregon; creative talent in music and film had become centred in Los Angles, and so on.

At the time that Reich wrote The Work Of Nations (1991), the majority of the symbolic analysts in these and other creative zones worked for scientific institutions or corporations. But, the more advanced the technology and the less visible and tangible it is, the greater is the scope for knowledge workers to form or join talent collectives.

Half the scientists and technologists working in the US are not from there, they and the native born knowledge workers could choose to live in a suitable creative zone anywhere on the planet. The same options apply to new technologists, scientists and innovation leaders currently working in any nation state.

Talent Collectives Transcend The Controlled Economy [92]
Digital technology does not recognise borders, it flows freely from one point to another, and information and ideas flow through the digital conduits. Talented people are, for the moment, more restricted. There are controls on physical movement and the movement of funds, restrictions on property ownership by foreigners, citizenship waiting lists for immigrants, compulsory military service requirements, and a host of other regulations and restrictions that people face within nation states. However, it is clear that nations are now in competition for residents who have the knowledge and imagination to create new sunrise industries and economic prosperity.

This competitive need to attract and hold talent will not only lead to many tax and other exemptions for certain classes of technologists and their families, but also the formation of free cities and regions designed to attract them away from the centralised federations of the controlled economy.

As yet, there are no instances of independent cities that are built around the economic advantage of unique talent collectives. This is because talented people are still working as employees of corporations or institutions, or they are freelancing as individuals. No talent collectives have yet been formed with the aim of clustering a particular strand of expertise, such as nanofacture, in a chosen geographic locality. When this does happen, as it surely will, the cluster of talent collectives will have immense bargaining power in negotiations with potential host states.

The creative development and application of new technologies holds the key to the achievement of abundance, and enables new talent collectives to transcend the controlled economy that is based on scarcity. The new city states that host talent collectives will, initially, become oases of abundance in a global desert of self-defeating economic rationalism and scarcity.

Free Cities and Regions [93]
Those who doubt that independent or quasi-independent economic regions and free cities will emerge from the melee occasioned by the shift from "drop it on your foot" products and commodities to invisible technologies with near-magical capabilities, should consider the close parallels to be found in the emergence of city states during the first Renaissance.

The breakdown of feudalism and the hold of the Roman Church on Europe in that period was due to new wealth and prosperity derived from new commerce. Italian cities such as Genoa, Naples, Milan and Venice were able to break free of the rule of feudal overlords because they possessed expertise in new forms of wealth generation, such as banking and the emerging publishing and books trade (the Renaissance equivalent of the late 20th century IT sector). However, the most important factor in the rise of powerful city-states was their role as centres for new thinking and new ideas. This will also be the most important factor in the success of free cities during the 2nd Renaissance.

Conversely, the greatest weakness of the large and economically powerful nation states and their federal administrations is that they remain centres of old thinking and old ideas.

The city states of the first Renaissance did not persist as such, they were absorbed into the new nation states. It was the increased levels of information due to mass publication technologies that made centralism, nationalism and industrialisation practical. City states that broke free from feudalism and church rule were a transitional phase on the rising curve of modernity and "drop it on your foot" technologies, that culminated in the Level 3 Civilization that we were all born into.

The year 1980 was the pinnacle of the controlled economy, nationalism, militarism, and takerism. From that time, new digital technologies, in the hands of individual users, began to change the world and lay the foundations for an information revolution that will lead us, inevitably, to a Level 4 Civilization. Again, independent cities can be expected to emerge in the transition phase from one form of society to another.

Leavers - Takers - Givers [94]
In several of his books Daniel Quinn has provided lucid explanations of the way that the development of agriculture led to the formation of the Taker mindsets that replaced older Leaver philosophies, such as those presumably held by the ancient people of Caral.

At our present point in human history, takerism is both dominant and in decay. We are at the transition point from one paradigm to another. But there will not be a return to the ways of the leavers, the new paradigm will incorporate the new reality of abundance. There will certainly be a new spirituality and a new awareness of the need for cooperation and coexistence, rather than predation and species genocide, but there will be an additional element. A strong component of giving will emerge, based on knowledge and technologies that enable almost costless production of energy and material goods.

The people of the first cities to host talent collectives in the 21st century will be givers. They will use new knowledge to develop products and services with very low matter and cost compositions and then give them away. Software, medicines, foodstuffs, educational materials, and a large range other essential items will be free, to all those who need them.

Finding New Freedom Centres [95]
The initial recipients of the generosity of the new technology regions and cities that develop the potential of invisible technologies are likely to be the poorest and least developed areas of the world. People in these places have the greatest need and are likely to be the least defensive of old institutions and power structures.

It might seem that poor countries could directly host talent collectives and form zones of technological leadership within their own geographical areas. But the poorest nations are not places where talent collectives might wish to settle, because such locations presently lack sufficient infrastructure and amenities. There are moves to build and operate huge floating cities outside the territories of existing nation states, but the members of talent collectives might not wish to sail the high seas endlessly. They are far more likely to do what the talent collectives of the first Renaissance did, congregate in existing cities or towns within developed regions of the old civilization. There, the new technologists will progressively negotiate the freedoms and conditions they aspire to. But they will deal with small government, on a local level, not the irrelevant central bureaucracies of nation states.

Not Revolution, But Abandonment [96]
The process of gaining full freedom from nation states will not involve revolution or civil disobedience. It will thus be beyond the power of federal governments to attack or control.

Daniel Quinn, writing in Beyond Civilization, Humanity's Next Great Adventure, puts the situation into sharp focus. Quinn uses the analogy of an aircraft in trouble, he argues that in such a situation nobody wants to shoot or overthrow the pilot, they only want a parachute and an open door. As Quinn sees it, governments always have countermeasures in place to put down any attack on their authority and power from within (aircraft pilots might have a double locked door between their cockpit and the main cabin, as well as weapons to use if they are attacked by passengers), but governments never have any defences against abandonment (a line of passengers with chutes exiting the external door of the main cabin).

Quinn contends that while governments can imagine a revolution they can't imagine abandonment. As he puts it, "..even if it could imagine abandonment , it couldn't defend against it, because abandonment isn't an attack, it's just a discontinuance of support."

The new free cities will not emerge in some far off place, but inside the borders that nation states long ago set up to delineate their territories and facilitate the taxation of "drop it on your foot" products and commodities.

Big Is Irrelevant When Technologies Are Invisible [97]
The advantage of big governments, big corporations and big military and industrial complexes in the outgoing civilization was the economic and coercive power that their size gave them. When wealth, prosperity and power depended on control of "drop it on your foot" products and commodities there were strengths that derived from being big.

Big businesses enjoyed economies of scale due to greater buying power in materials and commodities markets and large production runs that enabled them to price smaller competitors out of the market. Big companies then raised margins in those very markets that they had come to dominate through their ability to wage and win fierce price wars.

Big governments, particularly federal governments, were able to elevate political issues to the national level and seek mandates for actions and programs that could be said to be "in the national interest." Perversely, the widening of issues, "for the public good," often resulted in laws and programs that operated against the interests of individuals, families, small businesses, local communities and indigenous cultures.

So great has been the concentration of state power into major centres of government, that by the close of the 20th century the interests of some six billion people on this planet were represented by less than two hundred nations. A "one size fits all" approach to economic and social policy is one inevitable result of centralised and concentrated government. It leads to bureaucratic implementation of programs that are not only unsuited to the real needs of a changing world, but also too cumbersome to adapt and change.

During the first and second industrial revolutions this lack of adaptability was of little practical consequence. Large administrative systems were able to control the production, distribution and taxation of tangible "drop it on your foot" products. But the situation is radically different when the key technologies are so small in scale that they are invisible, and changing and advancing at the rate of a new generation every few months.

Larger and more powerful computer systems are often touted as the solution to maintaining control of national programs of every type, fiscal, economic, social and military. But this argument overlooks a crucial reality. It is not the power or speed of the computer systems used by big government that now determines effectiveness, but the quality of the human minds that must devise and rapidly adapt new initiatives.

Put bluntly, the conventional thinkers that predominate in centralised bureaucracies are not up to the task now facing all centralised administrations seeking to maintain control in the face of new and ever changing invisible technologies. The new age of magic technologies is all too strange and fast for federal bureaucrats, schooled as they are in rules, regimentation, and stable, predictable, mechanisms of control and wealth appropriation.

Big Governments Are Too Inefficient To Survive [98]
A second inevitable result of centralised and concentrated government is that the costs of federalism are very high relative to the real value of the various services provided to citizens. Davidson and Rees-Mogg, the authors of The Sovereign Individual, note that "governments waste resources on a large scale" and provide poor quality services and protection in return.

During the industrial age this circumstance was not within the power of citizens to address. Governments held a monopoly on protection. In answer to the question of what exactly was being protected, the authors say, "..primarily industrial installations with high capital costs and significant vulnerability to attack. The presence of large-scale industrial firms would not have been possible in a disordered environment with more competitive violence, even if the result had been to shrink the overall share of output taken by government." That share taken by the state has been so punitive that the very sustainability of the capitalist system has been jeopardised.

Davidson and Rees-Mogg observe that, "Politicians were able to impose marginal tax rates approaching 90 percent in every OECD country in the decade immediately following World War II." High levels of taxation hinder wealth building by individuals and make a large proportion of the citizens of nation states dependent on welfare, particularly in their old age. Although there is a continuing trend to lower taxes in a globalised world, the damage has already been done.

Looming Costs Exceed Vanishing Revenues [99]
By taxing the bulk of its citizens at levels that significantly hindered their ability to save and build independent wealth, big governments have created a massive poverty trap for large numbers of people involved in the old economy.

Davidson and Rees-Mogg note that in the US, one of the bastions of industrial capitalism and big government, "...fully 65% of Americans have no savings for retirement at all. None. The average American will reach 65 facing expected medical bills of more than $200,000 before death and with a net worth of less than $75,000." This comes at a time when the state no longer has the ability to generate greater tax revenues, or even sustain the levels of previous decades.

Although captive industries that produced "drop in on your foot" products remain within the borders of nation states, neither the enterprises nor the workers that they employ are competitive or viable in a globalised world dominated by magic new technologies. Firms made bankrupt and workers made unemployed and unemployable by the changes simply will not have the wealth needed to fill the coffers of central taxation agencies. Substantial requirements for increased funding of welfare support and other adjustment programs are arising at a time when the ability of big governments to raise funds is decreasing exponentially.

Only lean, savvy administrations that are geared to providing value for money services are likely to survive. None of the OECD states fit this description.

New Sunrise Industries Are Inherently Free [100]
Davidson and Rees-Mogg make an important observation about the new technological elites of the post-industrial age. They describe them as "specialists in production". The elites of nation states are, by their Taker ethos and historical events, characterised as "specialists in violence".

In the new industries such as nanofacture, technologists will use abundant energy to fashion any manner of tangible products from the inside out, from invisible and ubiquitous atoms rather than bulk traded commodities such as iron and steel. It is fundamentally impossible to tax the use of atoms and invisible technologies, or to hold the manufacturers to ransom within the borders of a nation state. In The Sovereign Individual the authors foresee that, "The defection of the information elite from citizenship will have a stimulus much like that which led millions of Europeans five hundred years earlier to renounce the infallibility of the pope."

They posit not only a shift from governed citizenship to individual sovereignty but also a new enlightenment that totally rejects centralised power and the threat of violent oppression. The new industries that spearhead the transition from the economics of scarcity to the economics of abundance will be inherently free. This will be so because the people that lead and work in them will be sovereign individuals, instead of lifelong tax slaves or available cannon fodder to fight in regular armed conflicts driven by takerism and nationalism.

A Time Favourable to Secession [101]
To many people it seems improbable that secessions could take place within the present constructs of federalism and nationalism. Australia can be taken as an example. Most people think that it is inconceivable that the central government would permit one or more cities or regions to opt out of the federation.

Besides the various legal and nationalistic arguments that could be mounted against any secessionist proposals, there would be options of military force and economic sanctions available to the central government. It might seem that specialists in violence and disinformation could always prevent any part of the federation from breaking away. But such thinking is pre-1980s and it ignores new realities that are driving the 2nd Renaissance.

The main difference between the practicality of secessions from federal systems in the early 21st century and that of past eras, comes down to the impact of new technologies on wealth creation and self sufficiency. Throughout the first and second industrial revolutions, it was practical for nation states to hold the processes of wealth creation to ransom. During some two hundred years of European settlement in Australia governments at various levels; local, state, and federal, were able to stringently control and tax wealth production and commercial transactions. Any attempts to break away from the rule of violence, that was dressed up as the rule of law, could be readily prevented.

This situation pertained while manufacture by fabrication was the norm, and while transactions and money flows could be reliably monitored and traced. Once invisible technologies produce limitless quantities of nanofactured goods that are built from the atomic level using abundant energy, it becomes impractical to hold the production processes to ransom. The control of the state is weakened and its power is diminished. It is five hundred years since a similar shift in the socio-political climate arose as a result of a fundamental advance in information technology - moveable type printing presses.

Two Ways To Leave A Federation [102]
In Australia, and in many other so-called countries that are really aggregations of traditional tribal territories, there are two potential routes to secession. The first route is via a process of established cities or regions breaking away and establishing themselves as centres of new technology and new ideas. That is what happened in Italy and other parts of Europe during the first Renaissance.

The second route involves the setting up of entirely new living spaces on tribal lands that were previously seized by colonising governments that espoused and followed Taker philosophies. This route has greater credibility, in the sense of secession rights, where clear historical ownership of the land can be shown.

In the case of Australia there were never any treaties signed between the colonising takers and the original inhabitants. A treaty was signed in New Zealand but it was later broken by the British, so there is little basis from which to argue that earlier generations signed away their rights irretrievably.

It is quite conceivable that the present descendants of tribal peoples, in Australia, New Zealand, and other places, could find it attractive to secede and establish places where the new talent collectives of an emerging age of magic technologies might choose to live and operate as leaver-givers.

Leaving Existing Cities and Settling The Deserts [103]
There would be no need for leaver-givers to claim the developed cities that exist around the Australian coast, plenty of unutilised land exists. There is so much empty space that it would not even be necessary to dispute existing pastoral areas with Taker governments. Much of the Australian continent is uninhabited desert. Many areas of what were once prime agricultural land are now subject to serious salination problems. The land there is almost worthless to those who lack the technology to regenerate its fertility.

There would be strong moral and legal arguments to support the right of the original Australians to form alliances and pacts with new technology collectives to establish free cities and regions that operate outside and beyond the constraints of the old federation.

Doubters will point to the inhospitable nature of true desert regions, but they will generally do so from the perspective of industrial age models. The new age, of magic and often invisible technologies, will be nothing like the old Level 3 Civilization that is now being dissolved by the 2nd Renaissance. New tribal cultures and new centres of population will be quite capable of flourishing in habitats that were previously too harsh to dwell in.

Australia is a huge land. Leaving aside such practical issues as the suitability of local terrain, the continent could accommodate every one of the six billion humans now living on this planet. Moreover, they could each have a quarter acre block of land to themselves, and there would still be one fifth of Australia left over. That is without taking into account the vast territory that Australia claims in Antarctica.

The American state of Texas would fit into Australia eleven times over. If denser housing were used more people could fit into a smaller space. Davidson and Rees-Mogg calculate that all the people in the world could fit into Texas if families lived in detached housing with a small yard each. Once living spaces become predominantly apartment-style and high-rise, hardly any of the land on the surface of the earth might need be inhabited on a daily basis. Most of the land could then be returned to nature and the many species of plants and animals that are presently threatened by rampant takerism.

Land Rights Struggles Lose Economic Relevance [104]
Because traditional factors of economic production and wealth creation are being superseded, the ownership and control of land for economic reasons is becoming less important. There will continue to be spiritual and ancestral reasons for the land rights struggles that are going on in many parts of the world. But the days in which access to rich farming and grazing lands was a sure path to economic prosperity are past. As this fact sinks in, it will become easier for the original owners of land to regain the vast tracts previously lost to colonial powers and other invaders. However, farming the regained land is likely to have only subsistence value. Land won back from past occupiers will not become a significant source of wealth creation in the 21st century.

Farmland Secessions In The Developed World [105]
Agriculture in the developed world is already in an oversupply condition. Western governments presently operate substantial subsidies for their agricultural sectors, so as to preserve large voting blocks and stabilise their political power. As federal and state governments lose economic control in a globalised world, and as they struggle to maintain tax and other revenues, their ability to maintain and justify farm subsidies will erode. In these circumstances the farming regions of countries such as Australia, the USA and parts of Europe are likely to become prone to secession from the old federations of the past.

People in such regions will possibly reason that since the central government is losing relevance and having to reduce or eliminate agricultural subsidies, it might be wise to break away from their traditional "protection" and operate independently in the new uncontrolled economy. At first there might be a need to sell farm produce beyond the new and independent regions. In time it should be possible to attract talent collectives to raise the economic competitiveness of the independent areas, and eventually to give rise to levels of abundance that enable these regions to become true leaver-giver societies.

High Potential For Secessions [106]
Contrary to the prevailing wisdom, federations such as Australia will have a significant potential to fragment during the early stages of the 2nd Renaissance. The main forms of secession are likely to be:

It is unlikely that existing Australian states will secede from the federation, as there would be too few gains in individual sovereignty involved in continuing to operate under state governments. If the Australian federation fragments it will be more likely to form twenty or thirty free cities or regions than six or seven states that follow the old boundaries set at the time of European colonisation.

Because the original tribal people are generally tolerant and naturally predisposed to leaver philosophies and ways of living, Australia could be a very suitable place for emerging talent collectives and new sunrise industries to locate themselves. The non-indigenous people of rural communities in the Australian bush are also likely to be very amenable and compatible with 2nd Renaissance culture and freedoms.

The major cities could be a different matter, because they have large populations of corporate employees and professionals who will be likely to perceive the collapse of capitalism and nationalism as a threat to their "right" to a high standard of living and social status. The fact that everyone should be better off once the 2nd Renaissance begins to leverage technologies that produce abundance, might well be lost on many Australian city dwellers.

Landlocked Cities and Regions Can Thrive [107]
There will be no need for free cities and regions to have access to a seaport. Sunrise industries capable of supporting a leaver-giver ethos will only require an airport and some satellite links. Given these basic facilities the invisible technologies of the 2nd Renaissance will be able to distribute near costless goods and services to the world at large, particularly to those people in most need of them. There will be other facilities and conditions that play a part in attracting and holding talent collectives and new knowledge industries, but the traditional requirement of trading ports will not exist.

Why Technology Elites Will Choose To Give [108]
Davidson and Rees-Mogg recognise that specialists in new 21st century production are very different to the specialists in violence of capitalist-nationalist times. However, they argue that technological elites will develop, and that the gap between the richest and poorest people on earth will inevitably widen. But, there are several factors that should cause us to be more optimistic about the prospect of leaver-giver centres and societies forming the basis of a Level 4 Civilization. These factors include:

Abundance The key premise of The Sovereign Individual is a looming privatisation of the economic power and social freedom previously expropriated by national governments. Because this change is assumed to occur under conditions of scarcity and the need to compete to survive, it is considered that an entrepreneurial and technological elite will benefit from such privatisation, at the expense of the rest of us. However, in the conditions of abundance arising from the 2nd Renaissance, there is no reason to presume that the necessities of life, and many of its luxuries, will not flow to the billions of poor and needy on this planet.

Giving and Getting It is an observable fact that once people amass sufficient wealth they begin to give some of it away to others. This behaviour occurs within the present capitalist system and is known to have been evidenced by some of the most ruthless of entrepreneurs. Outside the commercial arena, there are other examples of individuals who have chosen to devote their skills and much of their time to helping less fortunate people. The work of the late Fred Hollows in setting up programs to treat curable blindness among Australian aborigines, and other people in many parts of the world, is an example of the latter form of altruism.

One of the great secrets of life is that, "The more you give the more you get". Once technologists have magic new technologies that are able to deliver all manner of near costless goods and services there will be no further need to compete for survival. Many of the new technological wizards can then be expected to discover the secret of giving and getting.

Collapsing Capitalism In the past it has been possible for well off people in developed economies to ignore the plight of the multitudes in the so-called third world who are existing on less than two dollars a day. As the 2nd Renaissance progresses there will be pressing reasons to help the less fortunate within first world economies.

Davidson and Rees-Mogg quote the results of a US Education Department survey that indicated that some 90 million Americans, or one third of the total population, are "woefully incompetent" and unprepared to join the electronic information world.

In Australia, measures of the relevance and modernity of the work being done in typical firms indicate that around two thirds of the present workforce is engaged in activities that will be made redundant by new technology, most probably before 2010.

Emerging technological elites will find it preferable to freely distribute costless goods and services than to wall themselves off in gated communities, living in fear of an increasingly angry and disillusioned underclass.

Opportunities Everywhere! [109]
In the early days of European occupation of Australia, many exploratory expeditions, many shipwrecked mariners and lost aviators, perished from starvation. These unfortunates simply ran out of supplies and then starved to death in remote country that contained abundant sources of both food and water, but in unfamiliar forms and locations. Today, the Australian army has a manual that identifies every edible source of nourishment in the outback. The manual contains all the knowledge required to maintain patrols indefinitely in the same areas in which many early explorers perished.

While it is destroying old forms of production and commerce the 2nd Renaissance is simultaneously creating new opportunities in almost every field of human endeavour. But these new opportunities are as yet, largely unrecognised by people who are still thinking and acting according to old paradigms and misleading teachings. Secession from failing federations and the establishment of new tribal communities suited to survival and success in a Level 4 Civilization is one such opportunity. It escapes current attention because secession from strong, easily controlled and governed federations has previously been difficult and fraught with coercion and conflict. The fact that this situation is changing has not yet registered on the consciousness of most citizens of the outgoing civilization.

They are in sight of freedom but they cannot see it.

A Sunset and A Dawn [110]
The signs that the sun is going down on the old Level 3 Civilization are everywhere. The sun is going down on nationalism, militarism and capitalism. It is going down on federalism as surely as it long ago went down on feudalism. Most importantly, the sun is going down on scarcity, poverty, ignorance and blind dogma.

While the industrial age sun was full it was difficult to break free of the above forces, but in the darkening hours of the 20th century it began to be easier. The old structures and institutions of the industrial age are growing weaker by the day, and escape is becoming a real possibility for ordinary people all over the world. Now is the time to assemble the ideas and formulate the strategies that will take humanity forward at the arrival of a new dawn.

During the night the forces of darkness, in the form of the covert agencies of nation states, will do what they can to disrupt and suppress the process. But the military-industrial complexes of the old civilization are not fighting against a revolution which they can readily put down, but the abandonment of a failing model by former citizens of federal and state regimes. As Daniel Quinn points out, there are few defences against abandonment, and the operatives and leaders of most materialist regimes can not even comprehend the possibility that the masses they "serve" and "protect" will simply decide to leave them behind, and combine to build new societies based on new opportunities that flow from the 2nd Renaissance.

Microjurisdictions - The New Model [111]
In the view of Davidson and Rees-Mogg national governments and international relations won't survive the coming privatisation of citizenship. They say, "If "international" were a stock, now would be the time to sell." The concept is likely to be supplanted in the new millennium, or at least narrowed to its original meaning for the compelling reason that the whole world will no longer be dominated by the system of interrelating sovereign nations.

Relations will take on the novel "extranational" forms dictated by the growing importance of microjurisdictions and Sovereign Individuals." In a Level 4 Civilization the jurisdiction of service-only governments will usually be limited to the equivalent of a town or city. Their purpose will be to provide the type of services that municipal councils now look after, roads, building standards, sanitation, garbage recycling, and so on.

Many existing services might well be unnecessary in an age of magic technologies. For example, nanoconstructors in the home or in communal production centres might reuse the atoms in household waste and garbage as feed matter for the creation of new nanofactured items. There will certainly be no need for electricity and gas utilities in the event of universally available free energy. Nor might mass transport systems such as rail and road networks be required. Whatever services requirements are left will probably be provided by some form of microgovernment. These administrations will genuinely serve the people, rather than control and exploit them.

As Davidson and Rees-Mogg put it, "The idea that humans must naturally place themselves in an "invented" community called a nation will come to be seen by the cosmopolitan elite as eccentric and unreasonable in the next century."

Getting Things Done Without Government Programs [112]
Daniel Quinn is justly contemptuous of politicians who promise to "fix" the ills of modern society with programs. In The Story of B, the central character says, "If the world is saved, it will not be by old minds with new programs but by new minds with no programs at all." In Beyond Civilization, Quinn writes, "Programs are sticks planted in the mud of a river to impede its flow. The sticks do impede the flow. A little. But they never stop the flow, and they never turn the river aside. .... Programs never stop the things they're launched to stop. No program has ever stopped poverty, drug abuse, or crime, and no program ever will stop them."

Yet programs are the stock of trade of politicians the world over. In Australia, and in many other places, political parties offer citizens a range of new programs or upgrades before every election. The need or probable efficacy of the programs are seldom challenged. Political opponents and tame journalists always ask the question, "Where's the money coming from?" but they don't ask, "Why should we believe that the program will fix the problem?" No one in politics, the media or big business ever asks the latter question, because they fear the obvious answer.

The layers of government in Australia are justified on the basis that they provide protection and solutions to problems through the collection of taxes and the allocation of public funds to a range of programs. If Daniel Quinn is right, and the multitude of programs will never solve the problems facing the Australian public, the whole of government and public administration in the country is a vast misrepresentation of purpose and value. Big government is simply unjustifiable and unnecessary.

Davidson and Rees-Mogg argue exactly this point. They assert that in an age of nearly instant global communications the whole idea of representative democracy is outmoded, and that problems should be addressed on an interest basis rather than a territorial one. Thus they say, "In the new age to come, communities and allegiances will not be territorially bounded. Identification will be more precisely targeted to genuine affinities, shared beliefs, shared interests, and shared genes, rather than the bogus affinities so prominent in the attention of nationalists."

The new minds that tackle a wide range of issues and problems in the world will often come from new talent collectives, and from people who live and work in free cities and communicate globally with like-minded individuals. The focus and motivation of the people who combine to save the world in this way will be directed at the problems and their solutions, rather than gaining re-election in order to progress a career in politics.

Democracy For Dummies [113]
The democracy we have now delegates power to elected representatives. It is a form of democracy in which a majority of individuals cede power to a minority group that they elect to represent their interests. Representative democracy arose in an age of primitive communications and a consequent remoteness of citizens from the seat of government where decisions were made. Additionally, many of the people of the time were either ill equipped educationally or simply disinclined to participate in the detail of national policy formulation, debate, and implementation.

Representative democracy is a system for the apathetic and the politically challenged. It is a system for dummies. It is also a system developed to deal with the allocation of resources in conditions of ever-prevailing scarcity.

Both these characteristics suggest that representative democracy will be an inappropriate approach for a Level 4 Civilization. The scientific and technological elites that emerge during the 2nd Renaissance will definitely not be dummies, and there will be an abundance, rather than a scarcity, of near costless goods and services to distribute. The times are changing and political systems must change too.

Democracy For Sovereign Individuals [114]
Free cities and independent regions will need to adopt a different approach from the outset. It will be a mistake to accept "reforms" to the old order of things, and hope to gradually evolve a new and freer system. The motto must be "Start free and stay free".

Some doubters will argue that it is impossible to resolve a myriad of differences in opinion and interests at the level of the individual. They will consider that achieving unanimity and consensus is impractical and that representative democracy is the only workable basis for political rule. But the goal is not to find a workable basis for political rule, it is to establish a basis for cooperative self-government in new Leaver-Giver societies.

If the term democracy continues to be used in a Level 4 Civilization it will not mean what it has in the past. The days when the many were ruled by the few will come to an end as the 2nd Renaissance progresses. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, writing in the 18th century, argued against the creation of laws by representatives of the citizenry rather than the people themselves. He argued that, "Any law which was not directly created by the citizens is not valid, and if those laws are imposed on people, that is equivalent to the people being enslaved."

As the magic technologies of the 2nd Renaissance banish scarcity and dissolve centralised power structures, it will become practical to involve sovereign individuals in the creation of the local laws they live under. This will require the abandonment of many of the adversarial, win-lose, concepts of present-day laws and a return to the more conciliatory and remedial approaches of law making and administration in tribal societies.

A National Enslavement Model [115]
Although it is never described as such, representative democracy has often become a national enslavement model. It is not always so, but in many cases political systems in both developed and developing countries have begun benignly and later become totalitarian. The adjacent diagram shows the nature of a national model.

[The diagram "nation.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

Each individual citizen has ceded power to an elected representative who then forms part of a legislative, or parliamentary arm of government. One of the powers that national governments write into law is taxation. An executive arm of government then sees to the collection of tax revenues and their application to a range of programs. Additionally, a third arm of government interprets the law made by the legislature, in an independent manner. This separation of powers is characteristic of the Westminster system of government that many nation states have emulated. The Presidential system of government is another form that has similar functions, although it seems to decay into totalitarianism more readily than the parliamentary model.

In the nation state the voice of an individual citizen is faint indeed. Within an electorate a citizen's voice is but one in tens, if not hundreds, of thousands. Even if all citizens vote, as they are bound to do by law in Australia, there might be few policy alternatives between a small number of dominant political parties.

As we enter the 21st century, a common cry from many people in representative democracies is, "None of the parties are worth voting for!" That is so because the dominant parties, and the bureaucrats that serve them in office, are pursuing agendas that are unrelated to the interests of the majority of citizens they purport to represent.

A Neo-Tribal Model [116]
The diagram indicates some key characteristics of a neo-tribal model. It borrows from Daniel Quinn's observations. Reading the relevant pages in his book, Beyond Civilization, can provide further understanding and insights. We are not considering clans or ethnic tribes here, but the tribal model in modern and post-modern settings.

[The diagram "neotribe.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

Quinn cites the small travelling circus as an example of a modern tribal model. In a looser sense, people collaborating in the development of open source software, such as Linux, might be said to have a tribal, rather than a commercial culture. In Quinn's terms, "A tribe is a coalition of people working together as equals to make a living." However, he notes that making money is a means of surviving in order to do what the tribe does.
Making money is not the primary purpose of forming or belonging to a tribe.
He points out that members of a circus want it to make money so that it can continue, but they don't join it because it is an enterprise. They join because it is a circus, and because it has a close knit culture that they can relate to.

In the 21st Century neo-tribes will play a major role in creating conditions of abundance. They will gradually achieve a state of self-sufficiency that does not depend on making money. The performances of the Circus can then be free. Neo-tribalism is a model for a Leaver-Giver society within a new, Level 4, civilization. It has no similarities with Taker philosophies or the failed models of nationalism and capitalism that have dominated the outgoing civilization.

Equality And Unanimity [117]
Unlike the average citizen of a nation state, each member of a neo-tribe has equality with other members, hence the large smiling face in the diagram. There is a leader of each tribe, and usually a council of leaders for a coalition of tribes. But, as Daniel Quinn points out, "...leadership carries little or nothing in the way of special benefits that are denied to other members of the tribe." There is no ruling elite, no hierarchy, and nothing to overthrow. The purpose of the various endeavours of a neo-tribe is clear, and activities are undertaken in a collaborative, often selfless manner.

This contrasts starkly with the competitive, win-lose nature of representative democracies and corporatism. As Quinn writes, "Kids of all ages run off to join the circus. No one runs off to join Disney World."

Neo Tribalism Is Not A Utopian Vision - It Just Works Best [118]
Neither Daniel Quinn or the other proponents of new tribal models claim that such societies are perfect. Quinn says, "The tribal life doesn't turn people into saints." He argues, however, that because tribes exist for all their members, who are all involved in the work of the tribe, the model enables people to live and work together with minimal stress and conflict.

Quinn contends that tribalism is the natural form of social organisation for humans, just as the hive is for bees and the flock is for birds. All the models that have survived through the ages are successful for their members. Unsuccessful models also evolved, but they did not last. Tribal societies are not perfect, but:

"..tribalism is not only the preeminently human social organisation, it's also the only unequivocally successful social organisation in human history."

The Rule of Law In Nation States [119]
Prevailing political dogma says that in return for the benefits of a civilized society citizens must accept the rule of law. However, when the nature and basis of the rule of law is examined, it becomes clear that several important qualifications should apply to such a dictum.

One such reservation concerns bad laws. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935, that legalised discrimination against Jews and led to Hitler's "final solution," are an example of laws that did not deserve to be respected by citizens of the state that passed them. As Henry Thoreau put it, "I think that we should be men first and subjects afterwards. It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right."

A second reservation about the rule of law within states and federations is due to the inapplicability of broad, national, laws to local circumstances and cultures. As jurisdictions extend across diverse geographic and cultural areas the relevance of broad laws can be lessened. What suits one location or socio-economic group does not necessarily suit others in the federation. The inapplicability of "one size fits all" laws becomes more evident as the world globalises. What constitutes free speech in one society does not necessarily fit within the ambit of broader laws enacted by remote legislatures of often totalitarian regimes.

However, the major reservation about the rule of law in an age of rapid technological developments lies in one of its greatest perceived strengths, its stability and certainty.

Evolving and Inventing Laws In Fast Times [120]
In The Story of B, Daniel Quinn makes a somewhat startling claim, via his character, B. The claim is that tribal laws were superior because they always evolved rather than being invented by committees. While proponents of the common law and the development of precedent by courts will argue that the 20th century process was also evolutionary, there is an important distinction between what has been possible in the past and what might be practical in the future. Existing laws were formed, or as Quinn would say, invented, in a relatively stable world in which legislators and the judiciary could understand the issues involved and know the likely consequences of their work. This situation is rapidly changing, and both law makers and interpreters of the law are losing the ability to deal with all the consequences of new technologies, for society, for justice, and even for the survival of the human race.

From A Full Gallop to Light Speed [121]
Adrian Berry spent nearly two decades as Science Correspondent of the Daily Telegraph in London. A prolific author in the field of science, Berry is a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Geographical Society and the British Interplanetary Society, and a member of the Planetary Society of the USA. In The Giant Leap - Mankind Heads For The Stars, he writes that, "From our earliest history as intelligent human beings we have been developing our ability to travel faster, not gradually but in sudden bounds."

Berry identifies sixteen orders of magnitude in the speed of human travel, from that of a crawling baby to a speed beyond that of light. He notes that for more than 95,000 years humans could not exceed Step 3 of the scale, the speed of a human runner (an average of about 30 k.p.h.). Five thousand years ago the horse was mastered and Step 4 (an average of 50 k.p.h.) was practical.

But in the 20th century technology kicked in and eight further steps of the scale were achieved. New technologies enabled half of all of the sixteen steps on the scale to be reached within the space of one hundred years. A number of robotic space craft have achieved Step 12 (150,000 k.p.h.), escaped our Solar System, and journeyed into deep space.

The next steps to be aimed for are: Step 13, a significant percentage of the speed of light (80 million k.p.h.); Step 14, a speed producing relativistic effects (750 million k.p.h.). The latter speed will enable humans to travel to the nearest star systems. No one knows how long it might take for humanity to invent and build vehicles capable of such speeds.

Adrian Berry thinks that Step 13 will come late this century, but this could prove to be a conservative estimate. New scientific knowledge and new technologies are growing exponentially, along with computer power. Interdependencies are important, a breakthrough in one field can spawn many developments in other areas of technology. It is not just the curve of the increases in the speed of travel that is significant, but knowledge in many other fields as well.

History shows that people always underestimate the rate of technological change and development. In 1953 the United States Air Force predicted, from a study of the advance of human transportation speeds, that it would be possible to land men on the moon by 1969. Their estimate was within a month of the actual landing date. However, in 1953, the scientific establishment and the media all considered that no landing could possibly happen before the year 2000.

Difficulties In Legislating For Strange Change [122]
Rapid emergence of new technologies means that new laws are required frequently. However, in an increasing number of cases, legislators must quickly invent laws relating to technical matters that they barely understand, and for which the future implications can only be guessed at.

When a fundamental lack of understanding is combined with the usual impacts of commercial and political interests on law making, the chances of good legislation being developed are slim. Not only are law makers and interpreters mired down in outdated precedents and stale mindsets, they are predominantly older men, who are disinclined to tackle the strenuous learning and continual updating required to understand and keep abreast of the waves of new technologies that are sweeping across our present societies.

Already, the rule of law is floundering in its responses to moral and ethical issues surrounding cloning, genetically modified seeds and foods, and the use of biorecognition technology for security and other purposes. In the near-future, the law makers are likely to face conundrums relating to the "rights" of non-human intelligences being used in the service of humanity, and the legalities of teleportation services (relating, initially, to inanimate objects) that bypass border checkpoints and customs procedures.

Life Patents Within The Rule Of Law [123]
In 1980 the US Supreme Court was required to rule on the question of whether a genetically modified bacteria constituted an "invention" under the terms of patent law. The learned judges collectively determined, five to four, that strains of the modified bacteria were unique and that such an "invention" could thus be protected by patent for a period of twenty years. The General Electric company became the first to hold a patent on a living organism.

In 1988, a mouse that had been genetically engineered to be highly susceptible to cancer became the first animal to be recognised as a human "invention" by the United States Patent Office. By 1996, the Roslin Institute, located near Edinburgh in Scotland, had produced the first cloned animal, Dolly the sheep, and had also patented their "invention". Western corporations and universities, particularly those based in the US, began a scramble to take out patents on a wide range of plant and animal life, as well as many traditional recipes.

Many patents have already been granted by courts and judiciaries that have been persuaded by an argument that is particularly powerful to people raised within what Daniel Quinn describes as the Mother Culture of taker societies. The corporations and universities contend that no research investments will be made unless all resulting discoveries are granted a 20 years monopoly of the commercial applications that flow from the inventions. No patents, no new "inventions" and no human progress, they say. In the West the rule of law has been rapidly reshaped to accommodate this piece of taker logic.

Is Everything Patentable? [124]
Although he was active in plant breeding, the original author of the US patent laws, Thomas Jefferson, specifically excluded animals and plants from the coverage of those laws. He also asserted that patents are a form of monopoly, and that whenever such monopolies were contrary to the public interest, the latter should take precedence. Today, Jefferson would be surprised, and probably dismayed, to see 20,000 gene patents being granted by the US Patent Office in a single year. From the antics of US and other courts it seems that every living thing and many traditional remedies and recipes are now fair game for patent claims. Among the patents already granted are the following examples.

The stimulus for US companies to seek an increasing number and range of patents can be found in the shift to intellectual property as a source of wealth.

High Stakes For Taker Economies [125]
All the industrialised economies were built on relatively "dumb" manufactured goods. At the close of the first half of the 20th century, the proportion of traded goods with high intellectual property content was quite low. One source puts the proportion of IP goods in US exports in 1947 at ten percent. But there has been a dramatic change. Knowledge goods have become increasingly important, and analysts now expect that by 2010 they will account for more than half of US goods traded internationally.

The message to takers is clear, own the patents or lose the 21st century economic contest.

Despite the fact that existence is not a contest in the natural world, and the looming realities of abundance through new technologies, Western authorities and executives continue to see international trade in "survival of the fittest" terms. Although it is not possible to "own" thoughts or knowledge in the same way that it is possible to possess tangible items, taker notions cause such people to want to patent and monopolise the natural world and the key ideas and "inventions" associated with both the traditional and scientific routes to the discovery and application of its wonders.

Given this type of thinking, the treasures of the forests are prime economic targets, and outright theft of the vast store of information and understanding that indigenous societies have accumulated over long periods of time is being sanctioned within the Western (particularly the US) rule of law. No one knows exactly how much money is at stake, but the amount is surely large. One often quoted estimate, which dates back to 1989 and is probably not as informed about the potentials of natural substances and recipes as current knowledge, is that the rainforests alone are worth US$ 43 billion, simply from the medicinal value of plant-based remedies.

No Chance Experimentation In The Forests [126]
One of the arguments that the corporate and academic biopirates employ to deflect criticism from their patent claims is that, "Indigenous peoples did not invent the many remedies that they use, they simply discovered them by chance, so their efforts do not compare with those of bona fide researchers and investors like us." But it is fanciful to contend that the tribal people of the forests simply stumbled across detailed medicinal knowledge.

Jeremy Narby is an anthropologist who has lived amongst the Peruvian Indians and understood the depth of their medicinal wisdom. Curare is a case in point, it is widely used to tip darts that Indian hunters fire from blowpipes. Once it is under the skin of tree-borne animals curare acts as a lethal poison, yet the meat remains edible because curare can be safely ingested. It is an intravenous rather than an intestinal poison.

Writing about curare, in his book The Cosmic Serpent, Narby describes how the poison is made in the jungles, "There are forty types of curares in the Amazon, made from seventy plant species. The kind used in modern medicine comes from the Western Amazon. To produce it, it is necessary to combine several plants and boil them for seventy-two hours, while avoiding the fragrant vapours emitted by the broth. The final product is a paste that is inactive unless injected under the skin. If swallowed, it has no effect. It is difficult to see how anybody could have stumbled on this recipe by chance experimentation."

The explanation that is widely given by various Indians for the discovery of knowledge such as this does not fit alongside the ingrained mindsets of institutionalised science. Jeremy Narby writes that, "When one asks these people about the invention of curare, they almost invariably answer that it has a mythical origin. The Tukano of the Colombian Amazon say that the creator of the universe invented curare and gave it to them."

Shamans Know The Forest's Secrets [127]
Whatever the basis of the discoveries made by indigenous peoples, there can be little doubt that they have been able to amass a great store of knowledge about the medicinal properties of the plants around them. Besides the use of curare as a muscle relaxant in heart surgery, there are now hundreds of prescriptive drugs in Western medicine that are based on knowledge gleaned from traditional native usage.

Jeremy Narby notes that, "74 percent of the modern pharmacopoeia’s plant-based remedies were first discovered by traditional societies." Much knowledge remains unknown to Western science and this knowledge represents a vast storehouse of unexploited wealth. However, as Narby writes:

"Without the botanical knowledge of indigenous people, biotechnicians would be reduced to testing blindly the medicinal properties of the world's estimated 250,000 plant species."

Although they were considered uneducated by the first Europeans to contact them, the Shamans of the Amazon and other regions had memorised not only the details of an enormous variety of plants but also the various recipes for combining and processing them to make potions that were proven remedies for particular ailments suffered by humans and animals. Although they were not credited with having this knowledge, the fact is that the Shamans know more about the botanical richness of the rainforests and the natural remedies they offer than anyone else.

Much of the knowledge that has not yet been identified and stolen is in danger of being lost, unless adequate protections are offered to reassure the Shamans that the secrets of ages will not be patented by Western corporations and modern centres of learning. There is a saying that aptly sums up the situation:

"Every time a Shaman dies, it as if a whole library just burnt down."

A Single Victory For Traditional Beliefs [128]
The cost of challenging a patent in the US can be more than US$300,000 per time. With hundreds, or even thousands, of patents registered over the natural medicines, pesticides and other molecular treasures in their forests, the costs are beyond the peoples of the so-called "third world". Yet, despite the difficulties, nine South American countries were successful in their bid to have the US Patent and Trademark Office cancel a patent previously issued to a US citizen for the ayahuasca vine (pronounced "ah-yah-waska").

The traditional holders of the knowledge of how to prepare and use a potion derived from the ayahuasca plant, and others such as the chacruna plant (that contains one of the strongest known hallucinogens, DMT), did not object to its use in the West. What they objected to was the claim of ownership, and the prospect of commercialisation of one of nature's works by an individual. They regarded such a patent as blasphemous.

Antonio Jacanamijoy, of the Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organisations of the Amazon Basin (COICA), stated that:

"The indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin believe that commercialising an ingredient of our religious and healing ceremonies is a profound affront to the more than 400 cultures that populate the Amazon basin."

In November, 1999, the US Patent and Trademark Office cancelled the patent previously issued for ayahuasca. According to the original patent claim the plant was "distinct," and therefore patentable, because the colour of its flowers had been changed by breeding (which is quite a simple thing to do). The colour of the ayahuasca flower, of course, has nothing to do with its use in the long standing traditional recipe, where certain chemical molecules in the vine are used to delay the breakdown of DMT in the gut, and enable that agent to enter the brain.

Under US patent law a plant can be claimed if it is a new and distinct variety. The alteration of the colour of the flower was an attempt to gain ownership of the unique chemistry of the ayahuasca vine. Ultimately, this attempt to own knowledge that is not only long standing, but sacred to traditional peoples of the Amazon, failed. But many other attempts have succeeded.

Commenting on this and similar cases, David Downes of the Centre for International Environmental Law, said:

"When people claim as their own inventions naturally occurring plants and ancient knowledge, we worry that our patent law system has lost sight of its original goals of supporting innovation."

The Vision Vine [129]
The ayahuasca plant is often called the vision vine because of the hallucinogenic effects it produces when prepared and ingested in conjunction with plants such as chacruna, that are rich in the DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) alkaloid. DMT is found in a wide range of plants worldwide, including common varieties of Australian acacia (wattles). Pure DMT can be smoked to produce powerful visionary experiences, but that is not what the many tribes of the Amazon basin do. Ayahuasca, or yage as it is also called, is not a recreational drug for these indigenous people. The potion they brew is only used by Shamans, and only for the purpose of healing the sick or contacting the spirits that their legends say first gave them the knowledge of yage in the distant past.

However it was acquired, this knowledge is truly remarkable. The harmine and tetrahydroharmine alkaloids in ayahuasca reverse the effect of the neuronal enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) and also facilitate the accumulation of 5-HT amines that would otherwise be metabolised by MAO. Due to the blocking action of the active molecules from the ayahuasca vine, DMT is allowed to circulate in the bloodstream and enter the brain. Chemist, J.C. Callaway, has described this process as, "one of the most sophisticated drug delivery systems in existence."

The visions that DMT produces are equally as extraordinary. Rick Strassman, former Associate Professor of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, was one of the few scientists to conduct research into the effects of DMT on human subjects. Strassman described the typical experiences of DMT use in the following terms.

"There are feelings of extraordinary joy, timelessness, and a certainty that what we experience is 'more real than real'...a knowledge that consciousness continues after death; a deep understanding of the basic unity of all phenomena; and a sense of wisdom or love pervading all existence."

These findings are not drawn from anecdotal accounts compiled by anthropologists and missionaries who interviewed Shamans and ayahuasca users in the Amazon jungles. They are founded on scientifically conducted experiments in a clinical environment. Yet, the descriptions are remarkably similar to those recorded in the jungles.

Seasoned private experimenters in mind-shifting substances also confirm that DMT is something very special. One says, "It was the first time I had the revelation that time isn't linear - that it's a conglomerate mass that we travel through, and we only perceive this small string of what's actually going on. So while I thought, 'I'm going to die today', I realised 'today is every day'."

Another experimenter described his experiences of DMT thus. "Getting over the onset of the DMT trip always felt like dying to me. Intelligences of uncertain form beckoned me through a lighted tunnel. The belief that DMT turned me into some intergalactic telepathic gateway, through which I could commune with 'higher' alien life forms, was so strong and fascinating. When I caught myself slipping into this alien philosophy at my then workplace, I thought it was time to stop. But the impression of being in the presence of a curious gentle alien intelligence has never left me."

Conversely, a survey by the Australian national youth radio station Triple J discovered that casual users of DMT found it particularly challenging. Triple J says, "It's the only drug that every single caller said they would never use again."

Using DMT can be very dangerous. Impacts on heart rate and blood pressure can be extreme. Shamans prepare to use ayahuasca by following a strict dietary regime for several days and by sexual abstinence. Do NOT experiment with DMT unless you are medically supervised or under the guidance of a traditional Shaman. DMT is a banned substance in most Western countries, including the US and Australia.

The Spirit Molecule [130]
Dr Strassman's work with DMT at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine has been hailed as the first new human psychedelic drug research in a generation. But not by the scientific establishment. He writes that he had great personal difficulty with the findings of his studies because they challenged his own world view, besides that of conventional science. But in the end, Strassman, a qualified psychiatrist and medical researcher, was forced to conclude that, "...DMT provides access to realms that are not just 'in our heads.'" In particular, the overwhelming frequency with which subjects reported contact with non-material beings leads him to postulate that such beings actually exist.

In his book, DMT the Spirit Molecule, Strassman contrasts conventional Western science with indigenous beliefs and understanding.

DMT is known to be produced naturally in our bodies. In this regard it is different from every other hallucinogen. Why do we produce such a powerful molecule and what purpose does it serve? Rick Strassman set out to find these answers. He followed up findings that DMT not only exists in our blood (discovered in 1965) but also our brain tissue (discovered in 1972 by a Japanese team). It seems that not only does the brain actively transport DMT across the normally impenetrable blood-brain barrier, it seems to hunger for it. Strassman says, "There are precious few chemicals the brain allows into its sensitive tissues...and even fewer it uses valuable energy to bring in: glucose is one, essential amino acids are another, DMT is yet another."

The Ancients believed that the pineal gland, located behind the third ventricle of the brain, is the seat of the soul, and both Eastern and Western mystics, to the present day, consider it to be the highest organ of consciousness. While Strassman has not yet proved that DMT originates in this pea sized gland, he has established that the pineal is rich in the enzymes and other ingredients necessary to produce the molecule. He postulates that an individual's life force, "...enters the body through the pineal at 49 days after conception, and leaves it through the pineal gland at death." Apart from those occasions on which DMT is deliberately taken into the body to achieve a psychedelic state, Strassman contends that the highest concentrations of this wondrous alkaloid in our blood occur during our birth and death, and during meditation or prayer.

Strassman acknowledges that his conclusions and theories take him well outside the bounds of conventional psychiatry, to the boundary between neurology and theology, and the realm of the metaphysical. In this regard he is a true scientist of the 2nd Renaissance.

From his experiences of administering DMT under clinical conditions, Dr Strassman thinks that this remarkable molecule might act as a sort of "reality thermostat." He writes that when normal people are given an anti-psychotic medication, which blocks the DMT that is naturally in their bloodstream, their consciousness becomes flat and dull. Alternatively, those people who receive additional DMT from external sources experience things that normally fall outside their consciousness.

Strassman says, "I suggest that DMT alters the receiving qualities of the brain, and employ a television analogy. Personal healing occurs by an enhancement of 'contrast and focus'; invisible worlds and entity contact takes place by changing the reception of 'channels'..."

Shamans exploit their knowledge of the chemistry of rainforest plants, and use DMT to "see" beyond the veils of normal reality. Indigenous people who have experienced DMT through the ingestion of potions made using the ayahuasca vine are fully aware of the channels beyond normal consciousness. Jeremy Narby records that natives of the Amazon region often refer to ayahuasca as "the television of the forest." One of Narby's major conclusions set out in his book, The Cosmic Serpent - DNA and The Origins of Knowledge, is remarkably reflected in the notes of a DMT session taken down by Dr Strassman. The subject said she discovered that:

"God dances in every cell of my body, and every cell of life dances in God."

A Remedy For Heroin Addiction [131]
Another remarkable "folk remedy" concerns a natural alkaloid extracted from the root of the Taberanthe iboga shrub that grows in West Africa. Traditional people use ibogaine for its vision-giving properties, but it has a growing reputation in the West as a way of kicking heroin and other addictions.

Despite being a US Schedule-1 prohibited drug, and having side effects that might have resulted in the death of at least one patient, ibogaine is slowly gaining recognition for its remarkable capacity to change not only the craving for addictive substances such as heroin, methadone and morphine, but the life-attitude and self-image of addicts.

Incredibly, proponents of ibogaine treatment assert that, in most cases, such outcomes are achieved after a single dose.

Harold Lotsof, who first used ibogaine when he was a student experimenting with drugs in 1962, says that his subjects often wake from a session alert and ravenously hungry. "It's a miracle for a heroin addict of ten years, who has been shooting up a gram and a half a day, to wake up wanting steak and eggs for breakfast."

When Lotsof first began clinical trials of ibogaine in the Netherlands, in 1990, there was only one scientific paper on the effectiveness of ibogaine in treating heroin addiction. There are now more than 140 scientific papers, and two projects to develop safer derivatives of ibogaine are nearing the stage of human trials.

Professor Piotr Popik, of the US National Institute of Health, has been quoted as saying that ibogaine is, "..a potentially life-saving new strategy for treating addiction to a diverse range of drugs." Lotsof is less cautious, he considers that ibogaine is capable of reducing the number of heroin addicts by a third, within three years of its large-scale application.

One of the alternatives to ibogaine that are being developed in an effort to avoid its more unpleasant side effects, is being developed by Stanley Glick, a neuropharmacologist of the Albany Medical Centre in New York. His work was reported in New Scientist magazine (26 April, 2003) and that article provides a useful outline on ibogaine as well. Glick is collaborating with a medicinal chemist from the University of Vermont, Martin Kuehne, to test a synthetic substance, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), which closely resembles ibogaine.

Animal trials, using rats, suggest that 18-MC is as effective as ibogaine. If, as Glick suspects, 18-MC works by blocking the brain's main dopamine reward pathway, the New Scientist article observes that it will be a sensational outcome. "If he's right, the implications would be huge. Glick would have a drug that could muzzle any addiction: heroin, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, you name it."

But other researchers wonder whether a synthetic alternative to ibogaine might fail to provide the important hallucinogenic effects that help change addicts attitudes to themselves. Deborah Mash, a neuropharmacologist at the University of Miami Medical Centre, is developing noribogaine, a natural derivative of ibogaine that results from the metabolism of the latter substance. She hopes that it will be safer than ibogaine but retain the visionary effects of that substance.

"Whether the visions are important, I cannot say, but there are very profound experiences associated with ibogaine that can be life-transforming," she says. One recipient of ibogaine described the experience in the following terms:

"I was able to quit methadone without any cravings whatsoever. I don't know what changed, but I do know that my past is not such a burden now. Ibogaine has given me a new freedom. It isn't a drug: it's something divine - which sounds stupid, but it's true."

Resistance To Providing Ibogaine For Those Who Need It [132]
Needless to say, there are US patent disputes holding up the development and wide application of drug cures based on ibogaine or its derivatives. Major pharmaceutical companies are also circling the substance, waiting for one on Lotsof's patents to expire.

However the two greatest obstacles to the achievement of Lotsof's dream of a cure for heroin and other addictions have nothing to do with patent legalities and the notion of the "ownership" of knowledge taken from indigenous sources.

One of the impediments is attitudinal. Besides the political difficulty of gaining approval for the clinical use of what is presently a Schedule-1 drug in the US, there is also resentment in the medical research establishment. Lotsof says of ibogaine, "It was principally a drug discovered and developed by drug users. If you were a researcher who had spent years developing your career, the last thing you'd want is that someone with no academic credentials has developed the grail that you've been seeking."

The second obstacle is the resistance of vested interests, principally the criminal drug lords and the corrupt police and politicians they control. One person to offer ibogaine cures, in the hope of saving just 1% of the 140 million addicts in the world, found that it was impossible to set up a clinic in Mexico. He now operates from a boat in international waters. But he remains determined to help people cure their addiction. Ibogaine treatments presently range in cost from US$ 10,000 to US$ 2,000, but such expense is a small price to pay to get one's life back.

Drug addiction became a scourge of the 20th century, however it seems that it can and will be largely eliminated during the 2nd Renaissance. The hope for addicts everywhere is not that government programs or institutionalised science will save them. The more positive hope is that when free city states form outside the existing civilization, the leaver-givers of these places will develop and distribute medicines and cures at little or no cost.

After all, the indigenous peoples who have used substances such as ibogaine and ayahuasca do not wish to deny the knowledge and benefits to the rest of us. Nor do they claim to have "invented" the drugs involved. They say, without exception, that the knowledge was given to them through their contacts with the spirit world. Who are you and I to call these people liars or superstitious fools?

The attitude of new leaver-givers will be to let everyone who needs the treatments and visions derived from traditional knowledge have access to them, and let patent attorneys and global pharmaceutical companies be damned!

Death Is a Little Thing [133]
Christiaan Barnard, who is remembered as the first surgeon to transplant a human heart, would have encountered death many times in his career. Interviewed shortly before his own death Barnard said, "At almost 79, people ask me: where do you go from here? I say to them I'm on the waiting list. I don't know exactly where I am on the list or where I'm going, but I'm on it."

Barnard used also to tell a story about an encounter with an old African man, a Bushman from the Kalahari desert, in western Botswana. As one also nearing the end of his mortal life the old man explained to Christiaan Barnard that he did not regard death as very significant. He noted that everything dies: the trees die, the grass dies, birds die, snakes die, and people die. Holding his hand up so that his first finger almost touched his thumb, the old man said, "Death is a little thing."

With very few exceptions, tribal societies with traditional cultures that predate the rise of takerism and imposed scarcity, had little fear of death. Not only was this true of the Bushmen of the Kalahari, but of Australian aborigines, and the tribes of the Amazon. Because such societies had a close spiritual empathy with nature, and did not consider themselves beings apart from the other animals, the people had a clearer sense of death being a part of life. They were not afraid of dying. This is still true of small pockets of pre-taker culture in remote locations. But for the most part the forces of colonisation and organised religion, from the West, have obliterated the old understandings of death.

Whether it was intentional or not, the actions of colonial powers in converting indigenous populations to Western religions was, for them, a necessary condition for achieving control of new territories. When the native peoples stopped understanding death to be a part of nature and began to fear it, they became susceptible to coercion and the rule of law.

Rulers of every persuasion have long understood that a populace that does not fear death is ungovernable. So, the British, the French, the Germans, the Dutch, and others, all worked hard at eliminating traditional Leaver societies and converting native people to new ways of taker thinking. Then, death was no longer a "little thing," it became a big thing, involving a day of judgement, with a risk of hell fire and damnation.

When coupled with the introduction of artificial scarcity and taker concepts of property ownership and legal tender, Western death-fearing religions played a significant role in subduing, otherwise independent, tribal peoples.

The CIA's Job Applicant Screening [134]
Since its inception, in the late 1940s, the US Central Intelligence Agency has screened applicants for its own agency, and other sensitive government positions, using a structured interview process. There are questions in the interview designed to identify individuals who, by reason of their beliefs or experiences, might not have a well-developed fear of death. Such people do not get jobs in the agency. There are few Buddhists or Animists working for the CIA. Nor are there any people who are known to have had near death experiences or drug induced visions of a non-material world. Folk like that could be impossible to control through a fear of death.

A similar set of questions is used by the Australian equivalents of the CIA; the ASIO and ASIS agencies. Indeed, most agencies of this type would take a similar approach to screening out applicants who might be prone to independent action. None of these organisations want independent people, they want total control; for life. Those who join the covert agencies, or the mob for that matter, can eventually retire but they can never unjoin.

The Three Control Levers [135]
Specialists who study such things have identified three control factors that are routinely used by governments and their covert agencies. The factors, or points of leverage over the populace, are:

Recognised criminal organisations also use these same three control levers. However, covert agencies have more freedom to use the levers than the mob do. The greater freedom of Federal agents to act criminally stems from the fact that public perceptions, fed on a diet of TV series that glorify police and lawyers, identify organised criminals as the "bad guys" and government agencies, both overt and covert, as the "good guys." In fact, the overall category involved is better described as Organised Crime, with sub-categories of Government Crime and Non-Government crime. The former sub-category of crime is far more entrenched and damaging to a Level 3 Civilization than the latter.

Much the same situation applied at the time of the first Renaissance. The integrated secular and religious rule in Europe was starkly criminal, and this was one of the triggers for change and transformation in the society. Injustice and criminality were the drivers of reform on the secular side. On the religious side a major driver was the blasphemy inherent is the practice of the widespread selling of indulgences by the Roman Church.

Sources of Leverage [136]
The three levers of control above only work because they can act on particular sources of power. Three major sources are:

Inevitable Transformations Are Ahead [137]
In an address that he titled The New Renaissance (see the site on the WWW), Daniel Quinn correctly observes that no one can predict the future. He is right, however there are parallels with the first Renaissance that can help us make some informed guesses. However, the fact that our civilization will be transformed is not a guess, it is a certainty. Mass publication changed the old world, mass information that is accessible to everyone will transform the present world: - forever. The only conjectures are about how the changes will play out.

Consider the sources of leverage that the industrialist/militarist elites use to control the Level 3 Civilization. What forces are likely to erode them, and how long might it take to happen? Here are some informed guesses.

Changing What WE Control [138]
All over the world activist groups are using the wrong ideas to take on the Old World Order (OWO). Amnesty International, Greenpeace, Animal Liberation, and many other groups are often trapped by a wrong, but dominant, idea.

The idea involves changing what governments and corporations do.

A better idea is for us to change what we do. We still have control over many of our own actions, but almost no control over the actions of federal governments and global corporations.

Governments can easily ignore our attempts to make them change. They can also use the rule of law, and their considerable legal and financial resources, to defend whatever they do. Large corporations have similar capacities to resist pressures from ordinary people. Since the mid-eighties London Greenpeace has organised an annual World Day of Action against McDonalds. The protest takes place on 16th October. It attacks aspects such as the use of former rainforest land to graze cattle for beefburgers, the means of slaughtering chickens, the impact of fries and beefburgers on obesity, and the wages and conditions of employees. Greenpeace asks ordinary people to " to friends and family, neighbours and workmates about these issues." Two activists, Helen Morris and David Steele were sued by the McDonalds corporation in 1990, for distributing a leaflet critical of McDonalds products and business practices. Although the pair came through the longest libel trial in British legal history with significant public support, and some favourable rulings, their leaflet did not change McDonalds products or practices at all.

Corporations like McDonalds can control what they do, and they can choose to ignore criticisms and use the legal system to silence those who speak out against perceived shortcomings in their operations and ethics. But individual citizens also have control over many aspects of their lives. You and I might not be able to travel internationally without visas, body searches, and currency restrictions, but we can still choose what we eat, what we watch, and who are friends are.

Withdrawing Our Support [139]
While we can't change governments and corporations, we can change what we ourselves control. Artificial scarcity is the bedrock of capitalism, but it is a two way street. By withdrawing our support for commercial products or government programs, we citizens can create scarcities of our own. We can cause a scarcity of consumers, a scarcity of program participants, and a scarcity of believers.

The latter form of scarcity is vital to diminishing the power and control of the Old World Order. Citizens, particularly those in the West, need to withdraw their support for official truths and the mechanisms that promulgate them. There might be good reasons to withdraw support from McDonalds products, but doing so would only harm that single corporation, and many of the people who work there. A wide refusal to consume McDonalds meals will never damage capitalism or hasten the transition to a Level 4 Civilization. However, a widespread withdrawal of support for the misinformation and lies disseminated by government and corporate spin-doctors, and the mainstream electronic media, can do so. Such a development can help us meet Daniel Quinn's key requirement for our survival as a species. "What we must have (and nothing less) is a whole world full of people with changed minds. "

Actions WE Can Take [140]
There are many actions that we can take to help the transition to a Level 4 Civilization. Some actions that are well within our power are suggested below, you can undoubtedly think of more.

... Turn Off TV [141]
The acclaimed linguist and author, Noam Chomsky, reminds us that most of our communications technologies are exclusive to the West. He says, "The Internet is an elite organisation; most of the world has never made a phone call." People who don't have television or access to the WWW, are both winning and losing. They are being spared the deluge of propaganda that comes from the major TV channels, but they are also missing the wealth of valid information that is available on the Internet. We are more fortunate. If we so choose, we can keep the Internet but stop tuning into the TV propaganda of the Old World Order.

Keep your TV set for viewing rented movies if you like, continue to use the print media for sporting and other information of a non-propaganda nature, but disconnect the TV broadcast feed from the antenna or fibre-optic cable. Your children will be better off growing up without an ever-present propaganda medium in the living room.

In due course, there will be global TV broadcasts emanating from various free cities and regions, that will be unencumbered by federalist, nationalist, and capitalist doctrines. Such transmissions will come to your home through the earth, without using existing communication cables and channels. In the meantime your family can be spared the intrusion of the OWO into the home, by the simple action of disconnecting the conventional signal feed to your TV set.

... Become A 2nd Renaissance Resident [142]
Although the Feds will want to continue to consider that you are a national citizen of their's, you can choose to be a global individual. This is within your control, you can do something about it. Instead of including a country in your address use a global grid-box reference. (Some kind soul will be sure to work out a standard pattern of grid boxes from lines of latitude and longitude, and then post it on Freenet for everyone to use.) As well as using the standard grid-box address, use the suffix LG after your name, to indicate that you are a Leaver Giver.

At first encounter, the idea of global grid-boxes replacing countries in addresses might seem ineffectual. However, the implementation of such a practice can be very powerful, once enough people adopt it. There will never be much lasting impact from protesting about McDonalds or other corporations or governments. But the widespread use of grid-box addresses can have a very dramatic impact on thinking. It is a means of getting the attention of large numbers of people. Such awareness is a prerequisite for a world full of changed minds. When asked where you're from, say "I'm John Doe LG, from Lutherborough (grid name) at GR 23987 (grid-box code)."

If the grid framework is set sufficiently large to encompass natural communities, but not so large that they correspond to whole cities or states, then the grid-box addresses will become a practical basis for a global network of new-communal identities that comprise the social organisation model of the new Level 4 Civilization. In this concept there are no kingdoms, states or federations. Just localised geographic areas in which microjurisdictions - the new-communal identities - operate in order to provide local amenities and services. Individuals are sovereign, within the bonds of the particular tribe, or tribes they belong to. Membership of neo-tribes or techno-tribes has nothing to do with residential location or grid-box address. Individuals reside somewhere, but they can be members of talent collectives within a wider region, and of cybertribes that extend globally.

Implementing a system of grid-box addresses, independently of federations and states, will help to drive home the notion that people were not divinely "meant" to live the way we live now. Nor to remain citizens within old national and federal designations that have already lost their relevance, due to the technological changes now sweeping us forward. The dialogue that arises around the use of the grid-box addresses will help people to understand that there is life and hope after federalism and nationalism. We do not have to go on living the way we live now!

... Establish and support the new category of Freeright [143]
The freeright symbol, an F within a circle, indicates that while anyone can use an original work freely, no one else should claim it. There's nothing to prevent anyone from copying or publishing your writing or music, they may do so freely. Hopefully, people who use a work will attribute it to the originator, or to his or her alias. However, it does not matter if they don't. The diagram shown here contains a freeright line. This indicates that the free use and replication of the original is encouraged. It is expected that genuine neo-tribal authors will not claim it as their own. If others do so, it doesn't matter. The important thing is that the diagram is able to be circulated and used freely and widely.

[The diagram "ntc.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

Where freeright is concerned there is no concept of illegality of use. No matter what is done with a work, be that work literary, artistic, musical, or technological, lawyers should never make even one cent out of litigation involving its replication and application. The point of freeright is to circulate useful works freely. For example, freeright software might help people in, so-called, third-world countries to run second-hand computers donated by people in the West, without having to find money to buy programs.

By generating a volume of freerighted works, we can create a comparison between the old concepts of scarcity and legal limitations that support scarcity, and the new concepts of abundance and free sharing of knowledge, ideas and content. If you have talent and you can originate an e-book, some music, software, or anything that people might appreciate and like to share, freeright it and make it available on Freenet. Do it soon.

The diagram suggests that we really need a fast transition to a Level 4 Civilization. Every year that we loose will mean that millions of people suffer and die needlessly, under the false promises of capitalism and nationalism. Freerighted content can help raise awareness of the social, economic and environmental alternatives to takerism, and generate fresh thinking and hope.

... Rediscover Kinship Principles [144]
Besides its meaning for blood relationships, the word kinship speaks to a sharing of characteristics, origins or interests. Kinship will be very important during the transformation from a Level 3 to a Level 4 Civilization. Many of the institutions and social support structures will break down during the collapse of capitalism and federalism. For a period of time, people will have to fend for themselves, as they have had to in Argentina following the collapse of the banking and finance sector there.

In tribal societies, kinship determined not only who you could marry, but also who you had to help, and who had to help you. Such kinship support systems were a feature of earlier Aboriginal society in Australia, and no doubt, among the tribes of North America as well. Unlike footloose westerners, native Australians were born to a geographic location, a tribal land. Kinship and the support it entailed went with the tribal relationship. Today, it is hard to find that sort of kinship in Australia. But the caste system in India remains a living example of it. People of the same caste look after each other because the obligation to do so is a core element of the Hindu social support system.

Kinship in the new Level 4 Civilization will operate in two forms. Local kinship will exist within neo-communities and provide support services and safety nets that are far more available and compassionate than the soulless, bureaucratic programs of the capitalist state. Global kinship will permeate new techno-tribes or lightnet-collectives that span the world. Within these associations of similarly minded and motivated individuals, kinship bonds will arise to strengthen both the identity and function of the group. In the spirit of the leaver-giver ethos, many of the techno-tribes and other collectives will be environmentalist, humanitarian and philanthropic in their focus.

Now is the time to begin the process of developing kinship in our community and interest group relationships. Such kinship building is important to changing thinking and attitudes everywhere that there are people who hope for a better life for themselves and their children. It will also be vital to surviving the social, political and economic turbulence associated with the disintegration of the old, Level 3 Civilization.

It might seem anomalous to contemplate survival strategies at the threshold of an age of abundance and generosity, but it is realistic. There will be an inevitable lag before new ways of thinking and cooperating become the norm. In the interim, human affairs will be likely to vacillate between the old and new ways of living. By starting to familiarise yourself with kinship principles and by practicing them on a local and global level, you can help to speed the transition and lessen the possibility of harmful outcomes along the way.

The Old World Order will not do anything to smooth the path to a Level 4 Civilization, and a better world. On the contrary, they will do whatever they can to make it difficult. The police, the military, the media, the financial system, the rule of law, and all the mechanisms of civil control and surveillance will be mobilised in defence of the status quo. But, once they understand their options, the people of the world will not engage in a battle with the forces of the OWO. They will simply abandon the old way of living under national rule, for a better, freer, life in new tribal societies. Kinship mechanisms will help people cope with the pressures of official opposition to radical changes that will finally enable them to escape the invisible prison that the OWO had fashioned around them.

... Widen Civil Scepticism and Challenge Official Truth [145]
This freesite does not advocate civil disobedience. There is no point to disruptive demonstrations, strikes, riots and the like, that are aimed at making governments or corporations change their behaviours. Such actions don't usually lead to major, or enduring reforms. Wide demonstrations just give the OWO excuses to strengthen their civil control systems to protect us from ourselves (Authorities use labels such as "security" and "justice", but the systems are really about control).

A far more effective approach than civil disobedience is civil scepticism. Instead of dutifully accepting that the reasons and excuses given for official policies and actions are true, citizens who are civil sceptics refuse to believe any pronouncements that cannot be independently verified.

What we believe is something we have control over. If elected politicians and career officials are not prepared to "open the files" to the inspection of groups of randomly chosen citizens, we can decide that we simply don't believe the official truths that come from government and administration sources.

Since widespread civil scepticism could easily render a nation ungovernable, the notion that it should be invoked requires a sound justification. However, vindication of the need for civil scepticism is now provided, on an almost daily basis, by the very politicians who will be most strident in denouncing the idea. At the height of the age of empires, there were higher ethical standards applied in politics. In those days, any minister caught lying to Parliament did not have to be sacked. They would voluntarily resign, the moment that it became apparent that their statements had been false. However, standards have progressively declined and these days most politicians who are caught in the act of having misinformed or misled their constituents, simply choose to brazen it out. They treat the people who elected them, with complete contempt.

For example, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, on 24 September, 2002, told a recalled Parliament he possessed a vital intelligence dossier that, "...concludes that Iraq has chemical and biological weapons, that Saddam has continued to produce them, that he has existing and active military plans for the use of chemical and biological weapons, which could be activated within 45 minutes..." The consequences of this and other misinformation about the threat posed by Iraq were far from trivial. The arguments based on the intelligence dossier were a significant factor in taking Great Britain into an unprovoked invasion of Iraq that had disastrous impacts on the civilian population of that country. The information was later found to be incorrect. Yet, as of September, 2004, the Prime Minister remains in office. He did not walk, as onetime ethics in the British Parliament would have required him to do, regardless of whether he was himself misinformed.

Then there's the example of a former President of the United States, telling a national TV audience, "..I never had sex with that woman." He didn't have to respond to questions about a consensual sexual relationship - it was none of the American public's business. But when he chose to answer he should not have lied about the affair. The American people would have accepted a 'no comment' on the grounds of personal privacy, but many could not accept being lied to. They reasoned that if the President would lie to them about an issue that was personal he would probably lie about other things that were public matters and far more important.

In Australia, in October, 2001, just days before a federal election, the Immigration Minister broke the news that asylum seekers had thrown their children overboard as an Australian naval vessel was attempting to turn them back to an Indonesian port. The minister said, "A number of people have jumped overboard and have had to be rescued." And, "More disturbingly, a number of the children have been thrown overboard, again, with the intention of putting us under duress. I regard these as some of the most disturbing practices that I have come across in the time that I have been involved in public life - clearly planned and premeditated."

Both the Australian Prime Minister, and the Defence Minister, also made statements to the effect that asylum seekers had thrown their children overboard. The PM, said in a radio interview, "I don't want in Australia people who would throw their own children into the sea. There's something, to me, incompatible between somebody who claims to be a refugee and somebody who would throw their own child into the sea. It offends the natural instinct of protection and delivering security and safety to your children."

The Defence Minister subsequently released photographs of people in the water. The captions and date had been removed from these now infamous photos of a number of people, in the ocean, wearing life jackets. In an interview at which the Defence Minister reiterated that there was photographic evidence to support the children overboard claims of the Immigration Minister and the Prime Minister, the journalist interviewing him challenged their authenticity. The following is taken from a transcript of the interview, issued by the Australian Broadcasting Commission (Which still retained some editorial independence at that time).

ABC JOURNALIST: Mr Reith, there's nothing in this photo that indicates these people either jumped or were thrown.

DEFENCE MINISTER: Well now you're questioning the veracity of what is being said.
Those photos are produced as evidence of the fact that there were people in the water.
You say its a tight shot.
It's as clear as day.
Now, you may want to question the veracity of reports from the Royal Australian Navy.
I don't.
And I didn't either.
But I have subsequently been told that they have also got film.
The film is apparently on HM-
Well it is on HMAS 'Adelaide'.
I have not seen it myself and apparently the quality of it is not very good and its infra-red or something.
But I am told that someone has looked at it and it is an absolute fact - children were thrown into the water.


DEFENCE MINISTER: So do you still question it?

ABC JOURNALIST: I'm a journalist.
I'll question anything until I get the proof.

DEFENCE MINISTER: I've just given you the proof.

ABC JOURNALIST: No, you've given me images.

DEFENCE MINISTER: Well, Virginia, quite frankly, if you don't accept that, you don't accept anything I say.

Exactly so, Minister. Virginia did not accept the so-called evidence, and neither did many Australians. It later became known that (a) The pictures were of people from the asylum seeker's vessel after it began to sink, and they were taken on the day following the alleged children overboard incident. (b) The fact that the photos used by the Defence Minister as evidence of the children overboard claim did not show any women and children in the water, had been advised to the Defence Minister's media adviser, by a senior military officer, earlier on the same afternoon that the above interview with an ABC journalist took place. Thus, the Minister was, or should have been, aware that the photos did not show women and children in the water. Predictably, the only person to lose their job over this incident was the, Minister's media adviser. The three senior elected representatives of the Australian people all continued in their posts, after having perpetrated a blatant lie and communicated it forcefully, just a few days before a national election.

These examples make it clear why there is every reason for us all to become civil sceptics, and do as Virginia did - question anything and averything the Feds say until we get the proof.

... Expect High-Level Corruption - Help Identify and Publicise It [146]
Along with the widely observable breakdown of ethical standards in high places, comes an attendant rise in graft and corruption. Nobody should be surprised at this, it is always the way that empires finally deteriorate and eventually fail. It was corrupt practices, involving the sale of indulgences by the Roman church that triggered the protest of Martin Luther, in 1517. His list of 95 theses, nailed to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, led to the Reformation and the ultimate loss of the secular power of the church.

The history of indulgences began innocently enough. Originally, in the eleventh century, indulgences were a way of penitent sinners working off their guilt by fasting, the recitation of specific prayers, and making pilgrimages. By the fourteenth century, money gifts came to be substituted for the performance of good works and the observance of good habits. The following is a quotation by a senior figure of the time, Juan de Valdez, that sums up the monetary essence of the granting of indulgences in early Renaissance times.

"I see we can scarcely get anything from Christ's ministers but for money, at bishopping money, at marriage money, for confession money - no, not extreme unction without money! They will ring no bells without money, no burial in the church without money; so that it seemeth that Paradise is shut up without money. The rich is buried in the church, the poor in the churchyard. ....The rich man may readily get large indulgences, but the poor none, because he wanteth money to pay for them."

In 1517, Johann Tetzel, the Vatican's Apostolic Commissary for Germany and Inquisitor of Heretical Pravity, implemented a corrupt ecclesiastical scheme to raise funds for the restoration of St Peter's in Rome. The sale of indulgences was at the centre of the fund raising plan, and this blatant and scandalous financial exploitation of the people was what so incensed Martin Luther. The following illustration is taken from a pamphlet of the times. On the left Christ casts the money lenders out of the temple. On the right the Pope sells indulgences.

There are various parallels between the way that the furore over the financial exploitation of penance and forgiveness by the Medieval World Order led to rebellion, and what is occurring in present times. Native people everywhere are angry at the way that multinational companies and patent attorneys - members of the clergy of capitalism - are locking up tribal knowledge of the natural pharmacopoeia in unreasonable patents that are being granted by the US Patent and Trademarks Office. They regard these actions as blasphemous, just as Luther regarded the use of indulgences by Rome as contrary to the teachings of Christ.

Corruption And Decline Today [147]

Citizens are increasingly critical of the way that federal governments are mismanaging the taxes and other revenues that they raise. High levels of taxation throughout the industrial age prevented most individuals from building sufficient wealth for themselves, and now, as they approach old age, these people are facing the prospect of a state unable to fund even the most basic welfare programs, but willing to spend hundreds of billions of dollars on precautionary wars. In case some regime or other has WMDs somewhere or other, and might, possibly, use them at some time. The Pentagon has not been able to account for some US$1.1 trillion of funds that have gone missing, yet the US government keeps pouring more down the plughole. Where will it end?

Ordinary workers are also becoming disgusted with the growing evidence of graft, corruption and sheer incompetence at the top of major corporations. But, such behaviour is to be expected in the dying days of capitalism. It makes no sense to campaign for regulatory agencies of government to fix the scams and rorts in public companies. At this late stage they are unable to do so, even if they were so inclined. Because it now costs large amounts of money to run for office and to be successful in that endeavour, the political donations of corporations are essential to career politicians and the OWO oriented parties they belong to. Do not expect to find genuinely enthusiastic and effective watchdogs and regulators prepared to risk their jobs, and possibly their lives, standing up for the interests of small investors and consumers in these circumstances. Bureaucrats answer to politicians and the processes of government, everywhere, have been thoroughly politicised. The regulatory watchdogs might bark now and then, for television; but they are seldom prepared to really sink their teeth into the corporate executives who determine the levels of political funding that flow to the coffers of the major parties.

Corruption does not stop with politics and big business. In an address to a group at the Harvard Law School, in February 2003, retiring US Court of Appeals judge, Edith Jones, is reported to have described the American legal system as having been corrupted almost beyond recognition. It is evident from the text of her address that Judge Jones was not referring to bribery or coercion in legal processes, but to a wholesale breakdown in ethics and a complete disdain for the original principles of justice and fairness that were written into US law by the Founding Fathers. She said.
"The legal aristocracy have shed their professional independence for the temptations and materialism associated with becoming businessmen. Because law has become a self-avowed business, pressure mounts to give clients the advice they want to hear, to pander to the client's goal through deft manipulation of the law."
Do you recognise the insidious new philosophy that Judge Jones was decrying? It is that of takerism. The legal arena has become a jungle, and you eat what you can kill. Religious and ethical frameworks no longer shape the processes of the law. It is all down to simple expediency and opportunism - a battleground with no other rules but WIN!

Juan de Valdez deplored the fact that the people were not getting fair and balanced pastoral care from the corrupt, money focused, clergy in Renaissance Europe, and he was right. Judge Brown does not think that the American legal profession is providing the essential standards of justice and honesty that US citizens deserve. She said.

"The traditional Western beliefs in the structural integrity of law, its ongoingness, its religious roots, its transcendent qualities, are disappearing not only from the minds of law teachers and law students but also from the consciousness of the vast majority of citizens, the people as a whole; and more than that, they are disappearing from the law itself.
The law itself is becoming more fragmented, more subjective, geared more to expediency and less to morality. The historical soil of the Western legal tradition is being washed away and the tradition itself is threatened with collapse."

Just as de Valdez was right about the loss of integrity by the clergy in Medieval Europe, Judge Brown is right about the self debasement of the legal profession. Lawyers have become nothing but the clergy of capitalism, and they, and the rule of law, will fall along with that system. As Judge Edith Brown put it.

"Lawyer's private morality has definite public consequences. Their misbehaviour feeds on itself, encouraging disrespect and debasement of the rule of law as the public become encouraged to press their own advantage in a system they perceive as manipulatable."

"Having lost sight of the moral and religious foundations of the rule of law, we are vulnerable to the destruction of our freedom, our equality before the law and our self-respect."

A recent case in Australia, in which a law firm is known to have advised its tobacco industry client to destroy files and other evidence that supported the compensation claim of a woman dying of lung cancer, clearly demonstrates that the malaise that Judge Brown spoke of extends beyond the US. It is now a global characteristic of the clergy of capitalism.

Publicising Corruption In The Old World Order [148]

While Freenet offers a practical means of publishing details or claims of corruption, because it is anonymous, such use needs to be tempered by strategic aims. It is easy to post an animated image of a prominent political figure that morphs into a penis, but it does not achieve anything. Such content only makes Freenet content seem lightweight and childish. Similarly, specific allegations against individuals, who are named or otherwise identified, probably won't help the transition to a Level 4 Civilization. These exposures will just irritate the people concerned and frustrate their lawyers, because they will be unable to bring defamation or libel suits against unknown, untraceable, Freenet authors. If a large volume of personal attacks were to be made on Freenet, this would support the arguments of the conservatives and control freaks who want it closed down. Such exposés, aimed at individuals, would not lead to good or strategic outcomes.

Does this mean that Freenet can't be used to attack corruption in high places? Does it mean that the official truth can't be effectively challenged by Freenet authors? Not at all. Quite the reverse is the case.

Ordinary people want corruption stopped. They want organised crime stopped. They want government waste stopped. If Freenet authors simply expose instances of corruption, ordinary people will turn to the authorities to put a stop to it. Where senior figures in the OWO establishment are involved, there will be little chance of that happening, but it will be a chance for politicians, police chiefs, judges, and regulators to thump their chests and promise new programs to "fix" the creeping evil in our society. Of course, their programs won't work, and things will get worse, but that won't be immediately apparent.

Freesites need to demonstrate that corruption, and other failings of present-day society, are part of an overall pattern of decline. Until they realise that, ordinary people, who are trying to pay off a mortgage and climb a career ladder that is steadily being flattened, while more duties and workload are added to their job, are not going to look beyond the false promises of new programs from politicians.

Recall Daniel Quinn's observations about what people want. "People don't want more of the same. Yet, oddly enough, when they ask me what will save the world, they want to hear more of the same - something familiar, something recognisable. They want to hear about uprisings or anarchy or tougher laws. But none of those things is going to save us ......What we must have (and nothing less) is a whole world full of people with changed minds."

Before they are ready to make radical changes, people have to understand the deeper patterns below all the froth and bubble of the media coverage of events. They need to know that it is pointless trying to climb career ladders that are being torn down faster than they can be ascended. They must know that the stale solutions and failure-prone programs of the political parties do not, and cannot, lead anywhere but deeper into the decline. Freesites that help more and more people to know these things, will be far more effective than those that highlight individual instances of corruption, or defame and libel individual culprits involved in such matters.

Let's get the focus of Freenet right and keep it targeted on content that helps change minds rather than raise tempers.

... See The War On Terror In Context [149]
No understanding can be more important than that which pierces the media's smoke-and-mirrors presentation of the War on Terror, and reveals it for what it is. A strategy to keep control in the face of a revolution in knowledge and information access that stems from new digital technologies.

In order to grasp what is happening now, it helps to look at what happened before, when the Medieval World Order faced the information explosion that was triggered by the introduction of the movable type printing press. There are some striking parallels to be seen between the first Renaissance of 500 years ago, and the 2nd Renaissance of the present day.

Author's Notes:
(1) The focus of this freesite is on new ideas and abandonment of failed philosophies and outmoded systems of governance. Although some of the paragraphs beyond this point might appear to be critical of political figures and national institutions there is no personal attack intended. It is the thinking and strategies that are being criticised, not particular office holders. Nor are the cases meant to provide a focus for induced rage or revenge against individuals, however culpable they might be.

As World War II ended in Europe the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, was unceremoniously executed along with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Their bodies were hung by the heels from lampposts in Milan, and later buried in unmarked graves. The Mussolini family subsequently retrieved the body of Il Duce, in 1957, and placed it in the family vault. The body of Clara Petacci, who had committed no crimes, was presumably left where it was. The revenge killings of Mussolini and Petacci did nothing to advance the fortunes or way of life of the Italian people.

Revenge has never had any societal value, and for this reason I don't support it. Revenge takes society nowhere.

(2) The cases cited below do not represent anti-American, anti-British or anti-Australian sentiments. All criticisms are directed at failed and outmoded thinking. Please do not take offence at comments that follow, because these are not intended to apply to the people of the nations concerned, only the way that those in power think and act.

(3) Some readers might find some pictures in the following content distressing. If this is so, please accept the author's apology. The illustrations are used to drive home arguments against irrational attacks on civilian populations in the course of the much-vaunted War on Terror. The few pictures involved don't have much awe, but they certainly have shock. They make one wonder how the people who made the munitions and those who ordered their use in Afghanistan and Iraq, can sleep at night.

Please read on.

The War on Witches [150]

In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued a Papal Bull that became the rationale for establishing the Inquisition in Germany. The following excerpt from the Bull sets out the official view of the danger of witches to the community. The Bull and this this passage provided the sole excuse for the torture and cruel executions that were, ultimately, to be the fate of up to fifty percent of the population of some villages.
"It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, as well as in the provinces, cities, territories, regions and dioceses of Mainz, Koln, Trier, Salzburg, and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the catholic faith, give themselves over to devils male and female, and by their incantations, charms, and conjurings, and by other abominable superstitions and sortileges, offences, crimes, and misdeeds, ruin and cause to perish the offspring of women, the foal of animals, the products of the earth, the grapes of vines, and the fruits of trees, as well as men and women, cattle and flocks and herds and animals of every kind, vineyards also and orchards, meadows, pastures, harvests, grains and other fruits of the earth; that they afflict and torture with dire pains and anguish, both internal and external, these men, women, cattle, flocks, herds, and animals, and hinder men from begetting and women from conceiving, and prevent all consummation of marriage; that, moreover, they deny with sacrilegious lips the faith they received in holy baptism; and that, at the instigation of the enemy of mankind, they do not fear to commit and perpetrate many other abominable offences and crimes, at the risk of their own souls, to the insult of the divine majesty and to the pernicious example and scandal of multitudes."
Clearly, the Roman Church and its priests, and high officials, being among the best educated members of Medieval society, and possessed of ancient manuscripts and wisdom from antiquity, would have known the above assertions to be pure fiction. Nonetheless, the witch-hunts that originated from the 1484 Papal Bull were to continue in Europe for centuries and result in the deaths of between 100,000 (executions for which records survive today) and something less than one million innocent people (the estimated total including those trials and executions for which no records survive).

The motivation for the orchestrated war on witches could not have had anything to do with the attacks that Martin Luther was to later make on the Roman Church. Luther was one year old in 1484. His denunciation of the corruption and other failings of the established order of rule and law in Europe was to come 33 years later, in 1517. However, the War on Witches can be linked to Luther in one sense, it was almost certainly prompted by the fear of the Medieval World Order that such reforms would be placed on a future agenda of European polity. Put simply, the religious and feudal elites of Europe feared that the new force of mass publication, as evidenced by the printing of the Gutenberg Bible, in 1455, and the subsequent spread of movable-type printing presses, such as that established by William Caxton, in 1476, would inevitably lead to change and the emasculation of their power.

Note carefully what is being argued here. It is that the ruling elite of a spent civilization were prepared to set in train a process that would lead to the torture and unjust execution of hundreds of thousands of citizens, mostly women, solely to bolster their authority and justify their continued existence. The new technological revolution that the Medieval World Order feared was mass publication, and in the end it was this very force that caused their power and influence to evaporate. They saw the problem ahead, and fought a diversionary action through the Inquisition and the War on Witches. But, these inhuman actions only delayed their passing. The War on Witches could not save the Medieval World Order.

The War on Terror [151]

A new civilization rose from the ashes of the Medieval World Order, it ran its bloody course for 400 years but now faces annihilation in the face of the new technologies of digital information processing. However, if dissent can be stifled, if progress can be slowed and artificial scarcity can continue to prevail in the global economy, if information can be controlled and the official truth can be believed by the majority of citizens, the old order can continue for a few more years. Perhaps long enough to gain control of new technologies and turn them into weapons to enforce the status quo. Perhaps not.

The people who flew large commercial aircraft into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre, on September 11, 2001, were:

All of the above "facts" have become part of the official truth about 911. There are hundreds of sites on the WWW that question the veracity of the government and mass media explanations of what happened that morning in New York, and several sites on Freenet with the same conspiracy theme. We are unlikely to ever get the real truth about the attack that took some 3,000 lives, but we can control what we think about the event and its official explanation. We remain free to think and act according to the reasoning we apply to the facts that are known to be true, and what our intuition and collective psyche tells us.

One fact we can be sure of is that the vast majority of fatalities of 911 were of ordinary people. Very few, if any, high profile leaders and executives of the OWO perished in the attack on the WTC. The final death toll is uncertain, not because bodies were vaporised, but because there were illegal immigrants working in the WTC, for sweatshop rates of pay. The icon of capitalism, occupied by many major firms, had a population of people who could never be declared missing if they failed to come home. The number of deaths was eventually ruled off at about 3,000 souls.

Revenge Is Never A Good Reason For WAR [152]

Every life lost on 911 was an absolute tragedy, however, an important point needs to be recognised about the event that sparked the new War on Terror. It is that the 911 attack pales into insignificance when compared to the casualties in real wars and many natural disasters. It can be strongly argued that, of itself, the 911 attack and the resulting deaths and casualties did not constitute a sound reason to launch a series of retaliatory and "pre-emptive" strikes on countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq. Nor can the tragic losses of 911 justify the continued state of war now espoused by the political leaders of the US, UK and Australia. Two wrongs do not make a right.

While the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, in 1941, was undeclared, the aircraft were clearly marked. There was a strong case for the US entering the war to protect itself against the obvious intent of its new enemy to attack, and possibly invade, America. This was not the case with 911.

The truth about the real perpetrators of that attack remains unclear. We cannot definitely say that it was not Arab terrorists, but we can say that the US government has not yet made sufficient verifiable evidence available to prove that it was offshore terrorists that attacked the WTC towers.

Until that happens it will be difficult for the families and friends of those who died in the aircraft strikes and subsequent collapse of the WTC to achieve full closure of their grief. Sadly, such open disclosure of the facts to independent investigators and citizens audit committees is not likely to occur.

However, is cannot be right to support the US government and its allies in a series of wars against various Muslim states that are alleged to harbour and equip terrorists. It is not valid to attack countries because they "might" provide a base for future strikes on Westerners. Even if the 911 terrorists were Arab, as alleged by the Western media, the CIA, the FBI, and similar dubious sources of truth, revenge wars won't help the families of the victims achieve sufficient peace to continue their lives. Because it is external, revenge never provides closure. Only internal insights and adjustments can do that.

Author's Note:
Within the above sentiments, there is no intended devaluation of the lives that were lost on 911. No unnatural cause of death is ever good, be it due to attack or simply an accident. Despite what institutionalised science might say about the matter of death, it is only the flesh that perishes. The souls of every living thing, not just humans but animals and plants as well, survive forever. The life force in DNA is eternal.

Until recently, this realisation has comforted a relatively small number of monks and mystics. But now a growing number of people, those who have the interest to search out the answers and the openness of mind to accept them, are also blessed with this knowledge. As the author of this freesite, I sincerely hope that the families of the 911 victims will come to realise that their loved ones are not lost in spirit, but only in body. The loved ones are not gone forever. Their souls did not die, they live on in a higher state of consciousness.

Those responsible for the 911 attack will take longer to get to that place. Their souls will recycle adversely. They will come back among us in forms such as microbes living in the sludge of sewage treatment ponds. That is their proper position in the order of life. On their 911 record, the souls of the perpetrators don't belong in positions of high office and power in human affairs. While the rule of law and the mechanisms of federal states might struggle to bring such evil to account, there is a greater system of justice. And IT is divine and incorruptible.

Vocal Reactions to 911 [153]

We know what the leaders of the US, Great Britain, and other Western states have said about 911. Their words are on record, as are those of various media commentators. Here are some of the statements made in the days following the attack on the WTC towers.

Do you see a similarity in the above rhetoric on terrorists and the earlier diatribes on witches? During the first Renaissance the tactic of controlling dissent through a War on Witches was widely and wickedly used. This helped the Medieval World Order to survive for longer than it would otherwise have done, but at a terrible cost in lives and human suffering.

Shockingly, the outgoing elites of the present industrial society seem to be bent on repeating this same murderous ploy. Is the new War on Terror really a war on dissent and changes that could sap the power of the Old World Order? Is President Bush's statement, "If you embrace freedom, you're not safe from terrorism", a thinly veiled threat? Will more 911s and 1012s be needed to secure the iron control of the Old World Order over energy and other resources that, thanks to new technologies, are no longer scarce?

"No Regard For The Sanctity of Human Life" [154]

Following 911 the US quickly moved to attack Afghanistan, claiming that in harboured terrorists who had masterminded the WTC atrocity. Even to this day, no concrete public evidence has been released to support that allegation. There have been conveniently low quality videos and tape recordings, purporting to be issued by Osama bin Laden and other al Qaeda leaders. But these could have been fabricated by anyone with access to basic sound and imaging equipment. In respect of the invasion of Afghanistan, and subsequently Iraq, the Coalition of the Willing - the US, UK and Australia, have been long on intelligence assurances and short on hard evidence to support their murderous assaults.

As things stand, you and I can't really know what justification there was for the undeclared war on Afghanistan. But we can certainly know and judge the actions of the Coalition of the Willing (CoW) in the retaliatory attacks that were made. Even the strict censorship that operates on media coverage of military actions is unable to stop us knowing quite a lot about the outcomes. We can assess the information that leaks out and form our own views. We do not have to swallow the deluge of propaganda from the CoW.

Here are some quotes about the war waged in Afghanistan. It was, inevitably, a one sided affair. When the richest nation on earth takes on the poorest, the final victory is never in doubt. But what happened in Afghanistan can scarcely be called war. It was genocide.

In the Afghanistan turkey shoot the CoW forces used vast numbers of hard target weapons and other munitions containing depleted uranium (DU). This substance is almost twice as dense as lead. When it punches through concrete bunkers, armour, or mud huts, DU disintegrates into a chemically toxic and radioactive dust. In contrast to the earlier DU weapons used in Gulf War I, the newer ordinance produced deaths and deformities within weeks of the start of military action by the CoW. Between 1990-91 and 2001 the US arms manufacturers are thought to have "improved" the DU technology by introducing milled uranium ore to their warheads. This non-depleted uranium (NDU) is - wait for it - cheaper to produce and far more potent than DU. It poses massive health risks to civilian populations exposed to it, and constitutes, in every sense of the word, a weapon of mass destruction, or WMD. "Hey they're hunting them in Iraq, aren't they?"

The photos show deformed infants born in Afghanistan after massive use of DU and NDU weapons. These pictures are selected from amongst the least disturbing examples to come from the conflict. There are others considered too obscene and terrible to show here (although they do appear on some WWW sites). The really shocking pictures (those not shown here) are of babies with two heads or no arms or legs, and of young children with tumours growing out of their mouths, or from their eye sockets thus rendering them blind. Yet, the executives of the munitions companies that make DU and NDU warheads are respected as valuable members of their nation, the US. While the generals that deployed these evil, inhuman munitions against the least protected population on earth, are hailed as heroes. Go figure - as they say stateside.

Despite the prolific assurances that smart weapons would minimise civilian casualties and deaths, the CoW forces used DU in their projectiles and bombs. Even if all the strikes hit only Taliban forces, DU kills indiscriminately, invisibly, for centuries. It poisons water and makes land unusable in a region where arable soil is precious. During their assault on Afghanistan CoW forces bombed the Kajaki dam, which supplies water to over 1 million people. With their land and water poisoned by DU and NDU, the population faces the options of either leaving the localities they have inhabited for generations, or staying on in perilous circumstances.

Hardly any of the people in this predicament are members of al Qaeda, nor have they ever heard of the WTC towers. They are too poor to possess telephones, television sets or computers. Easy scapegoats for 911; ready-made witches.

Commanders of the invading CoW forces quickly encountered a scarcity of targets in Afghanistan. All they found to strike were collections of mud huts. Yet, more than 22,000 weapons were dropped on the Afghanistan countryside. These ranged from cruise missiles to heavy fuel-air bombs and satellite guided J-dams. Despite the fact that 60 percent of the ordinance dropped was precision guided, it is believed that, "One in four bombs and missiles dropped by the US on Afghanistan may have missed its target" (The Guardian, April 10, 2002).

In areas where Taliban fighters were bombed around the clock, there were many reports of locals finding the Taliban dead, with no visible injuries except blood flowing from their mouths. Such internal bleeding is consistent with the use of chemical or NDU weapons. The following phenomenon is said to have been witnessed by numbers of people entering bombed areas,

The Uranium Medical Research Centre (UMRC) subsequently tested the urine of people from Jala Abad and found the highest level of uranium ever recorded in a population. Concentrations were 400% to 2,000% higher than normal baselines.

The Pentagon continues to maintain that DU does not pose a threat to civilians or its own troops. And the US government is refusing to clean up the DU residues in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, US assertions about the "safety" of their DU weapons are not borne out by field experience.

Here is a quote from one British veteran of Gulf War I, Ray Bristow, a former marathon runner.

Perversely, the Australian government's solution to the "problem" of Afghan refugees held for long periods in Australian detention centres - branded "concentration camps" by human rights organisations and church groups - has been to offer them money to return to the land of their birth. Those unwise enough to accept the relatively small inducement offered are likely to regret their decision, as their families could face invisible killers in the form of contaminated water and radioactive dust.

Given the above, many people in the CoW homelands are expressing disquiet and disgust at the nature and outcomes of the new War on Terror. They are wondering exactly who it is that has , "No regard for the sanctity of human life." Is it "them," the Muslim fundamentalists, or is it "us", the nations that make up the Coalition of the Willing? Even if there are evil Muslims intent on terrorising the West, how do we justify our nation being so thoroughly and remorselessly evil in return?

Military barbarism by CoW forces does not provide any closure for families of 911. All it does is debase the US, UK and Australia in the eyes of the world. That's a good reason for people in the homelands of the CoW to opt for secession. So that they, as decent people, can stand apart from the monsters who so blatantly attack and murder civilians for economic and political advantage.

Voices Raised In Dissent [155]

If you speak to people who have, in their own lifetimes, endured war in their homeland you will find that the majority abhor the idea of militarism. The memory of World War II, fought in their countryside, was certainly a large factor in the refusal of France and Germany to join the CoW in attacking Iraq. There is little doubt that there are Old Order elites in Europe, in France and in Germany, that would have supported, and joined, the CoW invasions. But the people of Europe have had enough of war, and it these circumstances it was politically difficult for governments to commit to the strikes.

It is significant that in countries such as the US, the UK and Australia, which have not been invaded during the living memory of their citizens, it was easier for politicians, and the state-serving media, to fan support for a War on Terror, and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Nonetheless, many people in CoW countries have voiced their objection to war as a solution to terrorism, and to the human rights violations that are carried out in the name of anti-terrorist precautions.

People who speak out in these terms are courageous. Just as it was highly dangerous, if not suicidal, to speak out against the Inquisition or the dogma of the Roman Church, it is now dangerous to voice opposition, however justified it might be, to the War on Terror. In reality, the War on Terror is exactly what the War on Witches was. It is a WAR on DISSENT, and it is calculated to help the Old World Order hold onto power for a little while longer.

It is impossible to fool all the people all the time. And it is impossible to silence everyone. Since the Afghanistan and Iraq invasions there have been many expressions of disgust and disenchantment concerning the actions of the CoW. Dissent has been aired in the few remaining pockets of a free press, on the Internet, from the stage, and on the streets.

Here are a few examples.

Help Others See Beyond The War On Terror [156]

As already stated, it is pointless to protest and to undertake acts of civil disobedience in the hope of changing or halting the War on Terror. Ordinary citizens in the Coalition of the Willing's homelands have no more chance of changing the CoW's approach to the war than the inhabitants of 15th century German villages had of changing the way the Inquisition cruelly wiped out up to fifty percent of their populations, in the name of the War on Witches. What ordinary people can do today is to change the things that they control, including what they think and know.

The OWO wants to fight and suppress demonstrations and uprisings, because it has command of the police and the military. It wants to fight in the courts, where it controls the rule of law. It seeks to make examples of individuals, such as the Australian "terrorist" David Hicks, or of whole countries, such as Afghanistan and Iraq. It wants to cow all opposition to the continuance of the economic system of artificial scarcity; despite the present-day existence of technologies of abundance.

What the Old World Order does not want is widespread understanding of the truth about the opportunity to form a new, and far higher, level of civilization based on the accumulation and distribution of information and knowledge. After all, that was what caused the downfall of the Medieval World Order during the first Renaissance. It is the prospect of ordinary people everywhere gaining access to information and knowledge, changing the way they think, then "joining all the dots" to design a new and better world, that the OWO is, rightly, terrified of. Faced with that prospect, the OWO elites become as dangerous as cornered beasts.

The way to defeat the OWO is to abandon it. This is the message that must be projected. It is not a matter of fighting the OWO. There is no need to goad that cornered beast, nor is there any societal value in exacting revenge on its members.

During the first Renaissance, the world experienced a transformation to a new level of civilization. The two main reasons for this change were, (1) the impact of mass publishing on the spread of information and knowledge, (2) the emasculation of the power of the Medieval World Order, embodied in the Roman Church. Once the Reformation came, worshippers abandoned the old, indulgences-funded, church order for new split-off denominations that were founded across Europe. All of the secular power of the Roman Church was then lost, and much of its spiritual influence as well.

The old church still exists today, and it is no longer corrupt or malevolent. It no longer holds back scientific and technological advancement for the sake of dogma, power and control. The same will apply to the elites of the OWO. They will continue to exist in a Level 4 Civilization, with its conditions of abundance and spiritual enlightenment. It is just that the OWO will no longer have power over the likes of you and I. We will have chosen to abandon it, for a better life and the chance to use magic new technologies to do good for the planet, its peoples, its creatures, and its natural habitats.

Conspiracy Theories And The Truth Scale [157]

Anyone who speaks about the similarities between the War on Terror and the War on Witches can expect to encounter the charge of being a conspiracy theorist. Because of the way the label of "a conspiracy theory" has been positioned by the mainstream media - in the same category as outright lies and alien abduction stories - it is not helpful to one's credibility to be called a conspiracy theorist. It's equivalent to being tagged as a liar or a kook. However, the concept of a Truth Spectrum can help to understand the use of value labels, and how to counter media stereotyping of information.

Full information is the key to knowing whether any argument or theory is true or false. You would know whether a companion animal is named Spot, or not, if you named it. You would have complete information about the question of what the animal's name is, and how it came to be so called. But what about someone else who does not know you or your dog? Since they lack any relevant information they cannot be sure whether the name is Spot, of something else. If they are given a clue, say by the initial S on the animal's collar, a stranger can begin to move from a position of complete uncertainty, halfway between absolute truth and absolute falsity, to a position on a scale that is closer to the name Spot being true than to it being false. The diagram below shows such a Truth Scale, that can be used to reflect degrees of certainty or uncertainty about a statement, assertion, theory, or notion.

[The diagram "truefalse.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

In the diagram, zero is absolute falsity and 8 is absolute truth. Only those in full possession of all the relevant facts and information can know whether an assertion, such as "The dog's name is Spot", fits at 0 or at 8. Everyone else has either to: (a) accept the truth of the statement, without any real basis for doing so, or (b) fit the statement into the scale that bridges the range of probabilities between 0 and 8. If there is no other information, the fit should be Step 4. There is an equal probability of the statement being true or false. The notion is "half authentic".

On June 6, 1944, a statement that, "The Allied forces will land on French beaches, in a large scale invasion", would have been at Step 8 on the Truth Scale. By then everyone was aware that the invasion was underway. However, if the same statement had been made on April 6, 1944, the situation would have been different. For Allied commanders the fit on the scale might have been 7. They knew that the invasion was on, but the weather would determine the actual date. For civilians in Britain, the fit would have been more like 5 or 6, depending on how much preparatory activity they might have observed. For those in France it could have been 4 on the scale. They would have lacked any further information to authenticate the notion of a forthcoming invasion.

The point about the above example is that one month before the June invasion the authenticity rating of as statement that forces would land in Normandy on June 6, would not have been a conspiracy theory. It could not have been rejected out of hand, as a fantasy produced by over imaginative or warped minds. In 1944, the British and Americans were not conspirators. What was involved in Normandy was a joint military operation, one that was kept secret, but one that was a normal and not unexpected event in the war with Germany.

Today things are different. When Saddam Hussein's sons were reportedly cornered and killed in a house in Mosul, a headline on the WWW read, "UDAY AND QUSAY ARE DEAD - AGAIN". The article, suggested that it was unlikely that Saddam's sons would have been hiding out in the home of the local tribal leader that had appeared on Yahoo News some time earlier, with Abrams tanks parked out front. Other articles on the WWW questioned the story of a lengthy firefight involving only the brothers and one bodyguard on one side, and a large, heavily armed, US force. The use of mortician's putty to "reconstruct" the faces of the two bodies before they were exhibited to the press, also raised questions. Was the delay to allow time for Hollywood-like special effects specialists to "recreate" likenesses of Uday and Qusey? And so on. All these notions were dismissed as conspiracy theories by the mainstream media, and not accorded any place in the coverage of the US invasion of Iraq.

The many articles raising questions about the official truth portrayed by the OWO-controlled media are no less credible than the official truth itself. Where can one place the official story about the 911 attacks on the Truth Scale? In the absence of any concrete evidence being provided to support the line that al Qaeda planned and carried out the atrocity, it is valid for citizens and independent journalists (there are a few remaining) to assess the level of authenticity of the story on such a basis. When they come up with a low number, say 1 or 2, it is entirely valid to posit alternative scenarios, and to explore and develop them. People who do this are not conspiracy theorists. They are simply attempting to fill the vacuum of information that exists around them.

Operation Northwoods [158]

In his book titled, Body of Secrets, investigative journalist, James Bamford, follows up an earlier, and controversial, study of the US National Security Agency (NSA). While his book is about the NSA, Bamford also uncovered some interesting, and unrelated, documents under Freedom Of Information (FOI) access. The US Congress had increased such access following a furore over the 1992 film JFK, about the possibility of CIA involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy. A tip off from a knowledgeable source enabled Bamford to get hold of documents held from the public gaze for some 40 years. They related to a US Military plan, called Operation Northwoods, to raise the anger of the American people against the regime in Cuba.

That seems typical enough, the US and many other governments are constantly attempting to shape and manipulate public opinion. It's an industry, and every type of information and event gets spun for all it's worth. But Northwoods was different. In 1962 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff actually proposed attacks on Cuban refugees, US property, and US citizens.

The US Feds were planning to attack, and presumably kill, some of their own citizens in order to have the American public support retaliation against the Cuba. They wanted regime change there. Sound familiar?

The Operation Northwoods document that is said to have been presented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (the Pentagon) to then Defense Secretary, Robert McNamara, can be found on the WWW. Today, McNamara denies ever having seen the Northwoods plan. However, it is known that several days after March 13, when the document is said to have been presented to the Defense Secretary, President Kennedy directly told General Lyman Lemnitzer, the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that deceptive action should never be used to heighten the Cuban issue.

Among the possibilities canvassed in the Operation Northwoods document were the following.

There were many more actions proposed, but the above sample illustrates the thinking coming from the Pentagon in 1962. What were they thinking in 2001?

Elements within the American Military Industrial Complex (AMIC) might seek to label James Bamford as a conspiracy theorist, but his work on Operation Northwoods provides much more factual material than the official truth about 911. Bamford's assertion that the Joint Chiefs of Staff were advocating attacks on US citizens in 1962 warrants a rating of 7 on the Truth Scale. We can't be absolutely certain of it, but there is considerable information to support the notion. On the other hand, the proposition that Muslim extremists were solely responsible for planning and carrying out the 911 attacks on the WTC towers, is largely unsupported by hard evidence. It can only be authenticated at steps 1 or 2 on the scale.

Three Possible Truths For 911 and 1012 [159]

Since mere citizens are denied access to the deep data held within government agencies, and have to glean what they can from crumbs of information that emerge after thirty or forty years, people are forced to speculate about the truth. All we citizens can ever have are notions of what might really have happened, covering steps 1 through 7 on the Truth Scale. We are never permitted to know the information that would enable us to confirm the 0 or 8 steps.

For the 911 atrocity, and also for the 1012 bombing in Bali, there are three possible truths.

  1. Muslim extremists, who hate the West, were responsible, as told in the official truth. In the case of 1012 the official truth has been played out in an Indonesian court, with accused who have admitted their guilt. The latter touch considerably increases the authenticity of the official truth in the eyes of those who don't look too hard.

  2. Elements within the US government staged 911 and framed Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda. The CIA, as is widely believed in Asia, were behind the Bali bombing. (But how does that explain the admissions of Amrozi and the alleged involvement of Jemaah Islamiyah? See the segment on the Bali bombings below.)

  3. Both 911 and 1012 were joint operations between governments, much like the Normandy landings. This is not a conspiracy theory, it is a possible line of citizens inquiry, and quite legitimate. Within this possibility, the US and Saudi governments colluded with regard to 911, and Osama bin Laden was part of the plot. The US had bought his loyalty long ago, in Afghanistan during the Russian occupation. In the case of 1012, the US, Indonesian and Australian governments colluded to spur public reaction and support for the War on Terror.

The second possible truth seems improbable to many people. This is particularly the case in respect of 1012, because there are people like Amrozi who have admitted guilt, and who face the death penalty. Although the third possible truth seems even more fanciful to most, it actually removes the issues around Osama bin Laden and Amrozi. If they were part of a joint operation by elements of the OWO, they could be expected to convey the impression that they were solely to blame, as Muslim terrorists, and that the CoW is, therefore, waging a just war on defenceless people in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries to come.

What needs to be remembered, when grappling with the enormity of the betrayal inherent in both of the second and third of the possible truths, is this. In the War on Witches, up to a million people were cruelly tortured and executed. But, as even a ten year old child could tell you today, just by basic reasoning, there were no witches in medieval Europe. None.

The Inquisition and the War on Witches were instruments used by the faltering Medieval World Order to contain change and maintain their power and control. The "witches" that the Roman church persecuted to further its own ends, were a fiction. The people who died during the terror of the Inquisition were real enough, but the threat they posed was conjured up to preserve an old, and unequal, way of life.

Today, the systems of government and state control are global. There is every reason to expect that government and industrial elites might mount another witch-hunt, to retain power for a little longer. There are already active secessionist movements in Indonesia, and the Australian government, as argued earlier, faces the same potential, as new technologies erode its relevance. While it is not yet possible for ordinary people in Indonesia and Australia to know definitely, that there is collusion between their central governments - step 8 on the Truth Scale - there are sound reasons to examine and discuss this possibility.

Some Indonesian History - Candidly Revealed [160]

John Pilger is an Australian, who now lives in London. He is an award winning investigative journalist, a documentary filmmaker, and a former war correspondent. In his book, The New Rulers of the World, Pilger draws on and expands his television film of the same name. With scrupulous research and chilling candour he reveals how, in the mid-1960s, Western corporations colluded with the new Suharto regime to impose a global economy on Indonesia and the rest of Asia.

Writing of the massacres that were a feature of the US backed coup that brought Suharto to power in 1965, Pilger says:

What happened once Suharto had power amounted to the 'capture' of the Indonesian economy by the West. Pilger observes that:

No one should imagine that the evil collaboration between the Indonesian military and the leaders and apparatchiks of the OWO, including those within the Australian government in Canberra, has ever waned. It continues to this day, and that is another good reason to suspect the official truth about the 1012 bombings in Bali.

Safe Havens For Terrorists [161]

People who rely on the mass media for their information are likely to imagine that terrorists spend their active lives, and their retirement, in caves such as those at Tora Bora in Afghanistan. They are thought of as living a precarious existence in difficult circumstances. However, as John Pilger and others point out, a great many monsters created by the West live comfortably in communities that have no idea who they are. Here are several excerpts from Pilger's book, The New Rulers of the World.
Although not on so large a scale, similar training arrangements have existed for many decades between Australia and Indonesia. Many of the senior officers in the Indonesian military, commanders of the special forces unit Kopassus, and other categories of police and intelligence personnel, have been educated and trained in Australia. And that practice continues.

Australia Sells Its Citizens Short [162]

Australian citizens, Mamdouth Habib and David Hicks have been illegally incarcerated in the Guantanamo Bay facility established by the US military as part of the War on Terror. GBay is the modern equivalent of the medieval dungeons used by the Inquisition in their War on Witches. Habib was picked up in Pakistan in October, 2001, where his family says he was looking for a new home for them. Despite having been cleared previously of any terrorist connections in Australia, he is still in prison in Cuba. Hicks is an admitted Taliban fighter who was active against the Northern Alliance. There is no evidence that he was a terrorist or that he fought against CoW forces. Despite this, Hicks has not been accorded the rights of a combatant under the Geneva Convention. He has been denied access to civilian lawyers of his choice, and contact with relatives. Hicks faces a US military court and the death penalty.

In typical fashion the Australian government has done nothing to help Habib and Hicks get a fair trial and access to legal and other support. The only Australian contact had in the early stages of their imprisonment ws with Australian Federal Police and operatives from ASIO (a covert agency somewhat similar to the CIA). The latter are unlikely to have been much help to Habib and Hicks, and might well have worsened their respective cases. The fact that just about any major power can seize, mistreat or execute Australian citizens, without as much as a 'boo' coming out of Canberra, should cause more people on that large island to think seriously about the option of secession. Two of the same ministers who issued the glib rebuttal of UN criticism of Australia's treatment of asylum seekers, and the conditions that so distressed Ian Chappell, are directly responsible for the shameful abandonment of Habib and Hicks.

As the War on Terror is ramped up around the globe, Australians must look after their own interests when travelling abroad. Because it is clear that their own government will desert them if they ever need help.

Canberra's Shameful Deceit On The Balibo Killings [163]

On October 16, 1975, five journalists filming the Indonesian invasion of East Timor, for Australian TV channels, were killed at a place called Balibo. This name seems set to become one of the rallying cries of 2nd Renaissance secession movements in Australia. The facts surrounding the Balibo killings are so damning of the central governments of Australia and Indonesia that the event will rank in Australian consciousness with the Eureka Stockade uprising of 1854.

The following excerpts from various reports and interviews related to Balibo give an outline of the facts, some of which have taken 25 years to emerge.

Shirley Shackleton is a most courageous woman and there is no intention here of belittling her efforts to get at the truth about the death of her then 29 years old husband and his colleagues. However, the above episode raises profound questions about our continued support of central governments.

It is remarkable how people keep wanting the Feds to investigate themselves, when is obvious that they are not to be trusted. The matter of the Balibo Five demonstrates that Australia is no longer a free democracy, nor a society in which citizens can have any belief in the officials who are supposed to be acting in the national interest, but are instead acting in the interest of the AMIC and the OWO. There will never be a full and truthful account of the invasion of East Timor and the circumstances of the deaths of the Balibo Five. Governments don't operate like that anymore. The question this raises is; Why do ordinary people still look to governments to safeguard their interests and solve the problems in the failing system of industrial capitalism? As Paul and Cox said about beliefs that non-human intelligences will not arise in the near future: "Now there's nutty for you."

Fortunately, the power and control of government and military elites is illusory in the 21st century. The world no longer works the way it did, and there is nothing to compel people to support failed, outdated systems any longer. This is an understanding that must be widely and quickly shared. The future of our children and the planet depends upon our changing our thinking about governments, and our support for them.

Australia's Terrorism Wake Up Call [164]

The horrific bombings of the Sari Club and Paddy's Bar in Bali, on October 12, 2002, considerably strengthened the hand of the CoW in pursuing the War on Terror. Here was an opportunity to harden the hearts of the Australian and US public against Islamic fundamentalists. It was also a chance for the Indonesian government to justify harsh measures in the war against terrorists and secessionists, such at those in the province of Aceh.

In Australia, a heightened public awareness of the threat of terrorism on the mainland created an opportunity for the Feds to introduce draconian legislation that is designed to remove established rights and strengthen the powers of the authorities to ruthlessly crush all forms of dissent.

Eighty eight of the 202 fatalities resulting from the attack were Australian nationals. There were also many Australian casualties, some of these people will never fully recover from the horrendous burns they suffered. Oddly, many of the bodies of the victims of the atrocity could not be readily assembled into individual's remains, even with modern genetic and forensic technologies being available via the Australian Federal Police (AFP). On March 1, 2003, some 185 body parts (not whole cadavers) were cremated in a ceremony at the Mumbul Cemetery. At that time it was stated that another 43 fragmentary remains were still held at the morgue, pending final disposition by the investigators.

There are reports that in one Balinese kampong that provided labour to the clubs in Kuta Beach, seven empty coffins were buried, because there were no identifiable remains of the missing workers. It was as if they had been vaporised. Scores of people, mainly locals, are thought to have disappeared without trace.

A Uniquely Terrible Event [165]

The bombings at the American Consulate and Paddy's Bar were horrific enough, but the main blast, outside the Sari Club that was regularly patronised by Australians, was uniquely terrible. Despite the later impressions conveyed by Indonesian and Australian police investigators, the Sari bomb was not a typical van bomb. The facts in this regard are verifiable and indisputable. That they contradict the official truth should surprise nobody. However, the alternative truth will undoubtedly further sadden the families of the many victims of that October night at Kuta Beach.

The following are eye witness reports and quotes culled from many published shortly after October 12, 2002.

Names are not used here, lest the memories again disturb families that are already deeply hurt by the cruel attack.

The central governments of Indonesia and Australia did not exactly cover themselves with glory in the time immediately following the Bali bombing. Nor were they to distinguish themselves by the way the subsequent joint-investigation of the atrocity was handled. Put bluntly, the police and other officials involved in the latter fiasco should never, ever, be believed again. No matter what they say or do. Read on to discover why this is so.

Flaws In The Official Truth About 1012 - The Crater [166]

While it is not possible to be sure of the real nature of the explosive device that was triggered outside the Sari Club, we can be sure of one thing. The official explanation of a van bomb devised by Amrozi and various accomplices is a complete fallacy. It rates at zero on the Truth Scale. The eyewitness reports of the way the second blast occurred, the nature of the burns suffered by victims, the complete vaporisation of scores of people - with no body parts remaining whatsoever, the incredible damage done to reinforced concrete structures, the large crater in the street outside the club, the known blast characteristics of potassium chlorate, and the laws of physics, all combine to totally refute the official truth concocted by the joint Indonesian-Australian investigation team.

In December, 2002, the Australian Federal Police Commissioner visited Bali and praised the investigators. He said, "The Indonesian National Police, from my perspective, have done an outstanding job. It has only been eight weeks since the bombings and already 15 people have been arrested. There are only five suspects outstanding." Jakarta Post Editor, Robert S. Finnegan, an internationally published investigative reporter with 20 years experience did not see it the same way. In an article in the Jakarta Post he had written the following.

The size of the crater in the street outside the Sari Club is an undeniable fact, even though the investigating team quickly constructed a screen around the site and later excavated the hole, then filled in with clean earth. Many witnesses have reported the crater and estimated its size. It was also photographed by many people (see above picture).

Independent analysts have pointed out that there are only two ways that a bomb can cause a crater.

a) It is dropped from an aircraft and penetrates the ground before exploding.

b) It is physically positioned in a sub-surface position, such as a storm drain.

The Omagh car bomb detonated in Northern Ireland in 1998 was composed of a mixture of fertiliser, fuel oil and the high-explosive Semtex. This 500lb device killed 29 people, but it did not cause a crater of any sort. The first atomic bomb dropped from an aircraft and exploded above the city of Hiroshima in 1945, did not cause a crater either. This latter device weighed 4 tons and had an energy equivalent of 12.5 kilotons of TNT, but it simply caused a dome shaped blast wave above ground.

It is clear that there is no possibility that any amount of explosives contained in a parked van could have accounted for the large crater at the main blast site. Only a device that had been placed in a drain or otherwise buried could have been responsible for the large hole in the street. The specialist bomb site investigators from the Indonesian National Police and the Australian Federal Police must have known these facts. They presumably excavated the crater and dumped the soil at sea because the evidence did not fit the story that was being developed as the official truth about the terrible Bali bomb. Once the soil was gone and the hole was filled in with fresh material, nobody would photograph the crater and nobody would test the soil (Why else would it be removed?). Then the world would soon forget that the crater ever existed.

Flaws In The Official Truth About 1012 - The Explosives [167]

Everyone is aware that a bomb generates a blast wave. The force of the blast is dependent on the type of explosive used as well as other factors such as how the explosive is placed or delivered. There are conventions for measuring the speed and force of blast waves. Overpressure is the force that a blast wave exerts over and above normal atmospheric pressure. It is normally stated in pounds per square inch. The velocity of the wave may be expressed in feet per second. The figures relating to the blast waves that particular explosives generate are well known. Every specialist bomb investigator, and many other police and military personnel, know the values off by heart. They don't even have to look them up. These specialists are also well aware of the levels of damage that various overpressure values cause to structures and victims in their path.

When a qualified investigator looks at the aftermath of a bomb explosion the first facts that register in their mind relate to the level of damage evident in surrounding structures and the nature of the injuries suffered by victims of the blast. Even before traces of explosive are found and analysed these indications can tell a specialist what combinations of explosives and what size of device might have been responsible. Any competent forensic scientist with a knowledge of explosives characteristics can also tell, with absolute certainty, what types of device and combinations of explosives could not have done the damage.

It is important to realise that larger amounts of an explosive don't result in a higher overpressure, only in a greater radius of damage. Doubling the amount of a chemical explosive, such as C4, will not result in extra damage near ground zero, it will simply widen the circle of damage that is possible from C4's overpressure. Blast damage is caused in accordance with one of the most important laws of physics, Newton's inverse square law. If one knows the overpressure of the explosive or combination of explosives used, and the radius of the circle of damage, the amount of explosive required can be determined by simple mathematics.

The investigators from the Indonesian and Australian governments were faced with incontrovertible evidence of a massive blast outside the Sari Club. None of the explosives available to local Islamic terrorists could cause the structural damage and injuries, including truly terrible burns that were evident after the blast. The specialist investigators from both countries would have realised this. However they were obviously not permitted to say so. Instead, they made a number of feeble attempts to lay the blame on a primitive low explosive detergent bomb that Amrozi confessed to manufacturing and deploying. This did not fool independent investigators, nor should it have. Nobody with even the most basic understanding of explosives would believe the lies.

Here is what Robert S. Finnegan wrote in the Jakarta Post.

The overpressure values, in pounds per square inch (PSI), of the blast waves produced by the three explosives that Finnegan refers to are: 2 PSI for Potassium Chlorate, around 4 PSI for Ammonium Nitrate and diesel, and 10 PSI for RDX - the most powerful high-explosive touted in regard to the main device at Kuta beach.

Flaws In The Official Truth About 1012 - Damage To Structures [168]

The known effects of overpressure on structures and people are summarised below.
These effects are indicative. In practice physical features such as hills, basements, etc, can shield both people and structures from the blast wave. The first atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 created a blast wave with a detonation velocity of almost 100,000 FPS and an overpressure of 600 PSI, yet some buildings in the vicinity of ground zero survived and so did some people, although most later died from radiation sickness.

Why look at overpressure values and blast wave velocities in the nuclear range? Because the probability that the main explosion outside the Sari Club was indeed nuclear has been raised by several independent analysts, and it has also been raised and debated in the Indonesian parliament, as the following report makes clear.

"On Monday 18 November, Indonesian Parliamentary Speaker Amien Rais said he questioned the validity of the police conclusion that Amrozi was the main perpetrator of the Bali bombings which claimed more than 187 lives. Rais was supported by Deputy House Speaker A. M. Fatwa who stated, "My conscience says that he is not a key actor. I don't believe that Amrozi has the capability to make all kinds of preparations for the bombings, like setting off a kind of nuclear bomb in Bali."

"These pointed observations by two of the most powerful politicians in Indonesia, designed to counter deliberate Australian police and media disinformation about the bombing in Kuta Beach, were then recorded verbatim in the official Indonesian parliamentary transcripts. A wide range of media outlets in Asia and the Middle East reported Rais and Fatwa's comments, which were predictably ignored in Australia and America."

Concrete Was Stripped From Reinforcing Steel [169]

A key indication of the force of the main blast is found in photographic evidence and eyewitness accounts of damage to a reinforced concrete building that was 50 feet from ground zero.

The following quotes and excerpts are relevant to the question of what type of explosive could have caused the Bali Megablast, not only in terms of structural damage but also the fireball, the blinding white flash and the terrible burns.

Similarities To Hiroshima- Blast And Searing Burns [170]

Both in terms of structural damage and the horrendous nature of the burns and injuries suffered by victims and survivors alike, there are strong similarities between the Bali Megablast and the Hiroshima atomic bomb blast of 1945.

None of the young Australians who were in Kuta Beach at the time of the 1012 atrocity would have seen, first hand, the effects of the nuclear blasts in Japan. They were not even conceived at the time of World War II. Sadly, these young Australians have now seen something that is extraordinarily similar. Just as they are the offspring of those who fought in the conflict that spawned the first atomic attack, some 57 years ago, the likely mini-nuke exploded at Kuta Beach would be a descendent of the original 'Little Boy'. That 'weapon' killed 140,000 civilians, many of them women and children, at the time of the cruel attack. The radiation legacy of Little Boy was then responsible for the deaths of as many innocents again, during the years of torment that followed its dreadful blast.

What this says, is that little has been learnt since 1945. Precisely executed military operations are still slaughtering wonderful young people, those who stood, in 2002, at the threshold of a magical new age of abundance and enlightenment. Militarists are still deploying wicked devices that are based on the science of Albert Einstein, and the subsequent work done at Los Alamos by people who were rightly fearful about the monstrous weaponry they were pioneering.

Einstein was a sane, compassionate man. He must surely be turning in his grave in despair of the persistent inhumanity and insanity of central government 'leaders', with their taker based mindsets, who keep repeating the same mistakes, year upon year, without remorse or even an understanding that what they do is against the teachings of every religion ever adopted by members of the human race. Except one. The religion of power and control achieved through a combination of artificial scarcity and brutal force. It's called industrial capitalism, and like the A Bomb, it was perfected if not invented, by Uncle Sam.

The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was a clumsy, dirty contraption compared to the probable mini-nuke detonated in a storm drain in Bali. Little Boy had devastating power, far more than the device used at Bali. If a Little Boy had been dropped there much more of the island would have been badly damaged. The vicinity of Kuta Beach would have been razed clean, except for a few heavily built reinforced concrete buildings, like the one in the stripped reinforcing photo above. However, the blast characteristics would be similar to those of the modern back-pack mini-nuke of the present day.

The first of the 'Bali or Hiroshima?' images above is a scene from Hiroshima. The second 'Bali or Hiroshima?' picture is of damage done in Bali.

Here is one interpretation of what the Bali Megablast was like.

Author's Note:
The above passage is taken from the web site of an author who has done valuable research and provided important commentary on the Bali Megablast and other topics such as 911. However, I am not persuaded by this individual's evidence regarding the perpetrators of the Bali atrocity. For this reason speculative assertions that it was all put together by Zionists intent on ruling the world, have been omitted from the excerpts from that site. In my considered view the available authentication for the Zionists theory is low, probably no more than step 2 on the Truth Scale. Israel would seem to have its hands full in its own region, and there is no history of it having made any attempt to gain political and economic dominance in Asia. On the other hand there is ample evidence that the US has done so in Indonesia and surrounding countries for many decades. Thus, I consider that the Bali culprits are most likely to have been the CIA, working with high-level Indonesian military and political interests, and strongly aided and supported by super-fascists in Australia at the highest levels of the government and media. Presently, this likelihood is assessed as step 6 on the Truth Scale.

Flaws In The Official Truth About 1012 - The Power Failure [171]

The type of bomb that Amrozi is alleged to have built would not affect the power in Kuta Beach. At least, not unless it was detonated in a sub-station instead of a van parked in the set-down area outside the Sari Club. But there was a power outage. It was widespread, and it occurred between the first and second blasts. That is, after the bomb in Paddy's Bar and immediately before the main blast outside the Sari Club. Remember what one eyewitness described.

The above description was not made by any old Australian tourist in Kuta Beach that night. It was a first-hand report by an Australian Army Officer, Captain Rodney Cocks. He was on leave in Bali from a posting as a UNMO in East Timor. Besides being a highly credible witness in respect of the sequence of events, Captain Cocks happens to have received specialist explosives training in the Australian army. In describing the injuries, the blast and the crater it left in the street, Captain Cocks said the following.

Captain Cocks' account of the events that night is vitally important for more reasons than his military training and ability to assess explosives damage. His eye-witness record of the power cut just prior to the main blast gives a clear indication of the nature of the weapon. When a nuclear device goes critical, before it explodes, a Source Region Electromagnetic Pulse [SREMP] is emitted. The resultant overload of electrical grids and circuits in the region of the device is one of its telltale signatures, along with the nature of the blast damage and the horrific flash and radiation burns inflicted on victims. The following excerpts are from sources that describe the electromagnetic effects of a nuclear weapon.

The fact that Captain Cocks' account of the power failure in Kuta Beach seconds before the megablast outside the Sari Club appeared on the front page of the Australian Army Newspaper and on the Australian Army web site, was not what someone in Canberra wanted. It is reported that the Army was instructed to remove the article, with its description of an SREMP effect given by a credible Army officer, from the Army web site, on ministerial orders. Apparently, it was duly removed but reinstated on the countermanding order of a very senior officer. As of the time of researching this matter, August 2003, the account by Captain Cocks was still to be found on the official Australian Army web site, but it was by then in the archives area.

As for Captain Cocks, he was without doubt one of the luckiest men on the street on the night of the Bali Mini-Nuke atrocity. By chance, it appears that when he left Paddy's Bar and walked towards an Internet Cafe, he positioned himself in the 'null zone' below the rising diagonal blast vector of the bomb in the storm drain. This freakish timing could have saved him from the searing white flash that followed the SREMP blackout as a probable mini-nuke went critical below the surface of the street. Fate preserved the life of a man who was not only qualified to assist the victims of the blast, but to provide authentic and documented evidence of the SREMP effect, and thus of the true nature of the main device.

This was not a crude detergent van bomb, as both the Indonesian and Australian investigators have claimed. It seems to have been a truly terrible contraption that was directly descended form the 'Little Boy' atomic weapon that the US dropped on the women and children of Hiroshima, in 1945.

Nuclear Demolition Munitions - An Evil Madness Continues [172]

The design and construction of nuclear munitions does not qualify as 'science' or 'technology'. It is insanity. Daniel Quinn has shown that the absolute need to conquer and exterminate all possible rivals, the need to 'conquer' the land, and to bend nature to the rule of man, all derive from core taker thinking. Takers always fear attack because their own philosophy is one of growing rich and powerful through attacks, whether military or economic. Takers progress by either killing or enslaving 'them', 'the ones who are not with us.' Conversely, takers live is constant fear of attack from competitors for the scarce energy and resources of planet Earth. They build vast armouries of increasingly dreadful weapons to deploy against 'the other side'. When there are no evident enemies to fear - no 'other side' - taker states and their media machines will quickly invent some. Takers then use such contrived 'threats' to justify their own growing stockpiles of WMDs.

In this fear driven context the US has continued to develop nuclear munitions, despite the fact that it already has by far the greatest stockpiles of these inhuman weapons. Details of the latest devices are kept secret, 'in the national interest'. However it is possible for ordinary citizens to know what nuclear munitions their elected representatives and the military-industrial complex of their nation have developed in the past. The following excerpts are based on sources that draw from declassified US military documents.

But, the question of who committed the 1012 atrocity is less important than the realisation that the underlying motivation for such acts stems from taker mindsets. We will not see an end to the preparedness of nation states to build and use WMDs until the greater proportion of the populations of these countries have learned to think differently.

The most fundamental change in thinking must come from an understanding that in conditions of abundance, made possible by new technologies, the whole taker mentality can and must be discarded. Further, tens of millions of enlightened citizens who recognise this new reality must withdraw their support from the increasingly fascist regimes of the OWO, and create new centres of abundance. The vast majority of scientists and technologists in the developed world must want to live and act as leaver-givers, and work to raise the living standards of the five and a half billion needy people on the earth. Only then will the madness stop.

Amrozi's Future In Florida [173]

Many of the relatives and friends of the young Australians who died in the 1012 atrocity returned to Indonesia for the trial of Amrozi bin Nurhasyim and his fellow accomplices. All were seeking 'justice' and closure of their grief. Some hoped to slake their rage and satisfy a primal desire for revenge. None of these witnesses to the trial and sentencing of Amrozi realised that they were being cruelly deceived.

When Chief Judge I Made Karna read out the guilty verdict and the sentence on Amrozi he said, "The action of the defendant, an act of terrorism that goes against the order of civilised men." The learned judge was right about the crime, but wrong about the guilt of Amrozi. The case against the simple motorcycle mechanic from a small village in East Java had been artfully concocted by elements within the Indonesian government, to mask the guilt and the identities of the real perpetrators.

The following are some independent excerpts regarding the 'admissions' of Amrozi.

Well, actually, Amrozi had probably not forgotten the death penalty. If he did not have a 'deal' by then he surely would have by the time he stood trial. This deal would have been along the standard lines used by the CIA in countless cases and countries around the world. "You do what we tell you to do and say what we tell you to say, and in return we'll give you a new identity and a new life in the USA." What could anyone like Amrozi say, but "OK, it's a deal"?

From then on he became the 'villain' in a Hollywood style morality play on the evil of Islamic fundamentalism and the terrorist threat that Jemaah Islamiyah poses to innocent young Aussies and Yanks, just having a good time in a nightclub - or anywhere else on earth. "You and your kids could be next.".... "Well gee guys, support the War on Terror. Let's go get em!" The parrot people of the press and electronic media picked up the mantra and the rest, as they say, is history.

What about the firing squad? Won't they kill Amrozi? No, most probably not. Executions in Indonesia are always carried out behind the walls of a prison, the public are not invited. The victims are always hooded. So, the authorities can shoot any poor wretch they like, while Amrozi is winging his way to Florida and a new career as America's newest fast food entrepreneur.

Amrozi's substituted execution will not be at all exceptional. Similar switches seem to have occurred before in Indonesia, and in Thailand.

... Reject Military Solutions To Terrorism - Because War Can't Succeed [174]
History makes it plain that technology changes weapons and warfare. For example, bows and arrows, cavalry, catapults, gunpowder, machine guns, tanks, poison gas, aircraft, guided missiles, and nuclear devices, all changed the pattern of armed conflict in the past. So did technologies such as radar, and digital code breaking, in fact the latter capability as been said to have been decisive in the victory of the USA and Britain in World War II. Yet, the global powers of the OWO continue to maintain large armies and stocks of arms, including nuclear weapons, in the face of this historical evidence. Their leaders seem to expect to be able to launch attacks and win wars in much the same way as it has been done in the past. Given the astonishing wave of new discoveries, inventions and magic technologies now sweeping us forward, one must again invoke the observation of Gregory S. Paul and Earl D. Cox, ..."Now there's nutty for you."

The point to understand here is that the War on Terror can't be won by conventional military action. It is, therefore, futile to encourage or support those 'leaders' who advocate and pursue such 'popular' campaigns. These people are not only causing great harm to hundreds of thousands of completely innocent people in the countries they invade in the name of their new crusade, they are misleading voters and taxpayers at home about the outcomes that a War on Terror can accomplish. The truth is that when the CoW invades countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq, in order to defeat terrorism, there can be no victory. Such attacks can defeat the governments of the nations invaded, they can destroy their economies, and they can obliterate whole sections of cities and towns, in 'shock and awe' displays. But the attacks cannot eliminate terrorism, because terrorism is an attitude, not a tangible target. Harming the populations of countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq is more likely to increase the number of people with terrorist attitudes and intent towards the CoW, than to abate or eliminate terrorism.

There is no point in arguing the case against retaliatory military action in moral terms, no matter how right such contentions are. The New Inquisition of the 2nd Renaissance is not moral. So, the politicians, capitalists and militarists of the OWO will remain deaf to moral arguments. They will simply use examples of 'Islamic terrorism', such as 911 and 1012, to generate a desire for revenge in the wider population, and then they will trumpet retribution and play on nationalistic emotions and shadowy fears, to justify endless war.

The parrot people of the media will fall in behind the flag waving War on Terror theme, and many ordinary people will be persuaded that they must see the lives of their sons and daughters put at risk on foreign shores - in the name of 'freedom' and the hope of 'victory' over terrorism. So effective was the Australian media in this regard that they caused the popularity rating of the incumbent government to rise significantly after the Bali bombing, and support for a war on Iraq to harden on the streets of Australian cities and towns. Some relatives and friends of Bali victims even wished, publicly, for Amrozi to be tortured.

Torture is never a good idea, but it is particularly futile when it is applied to the wrong subjects. This was what happened, over five centuries ago, when harmless women and their companion animals were tortured to death in Europe, to avenge the 'evil' they had caused by way of miscarriages in cattle and the failure of crops. Torture was not justifiable at the time of the first Inquisition, and it is not justifiable now. But, hey, the mere mention of torturing terrorists, when it is mooted on prime-time TV, can raise support for our 'leaders' and their new crusade. It works like a charm, every time. That's why the parrot people do it.

No, the best argument to use against any war to crush and punish terrorists, is not that it is immoral, but that it is doomed to failure. The parrot people are unlikely to broadcast this message, so the task falls to us, the techno-tribes of the 2nd Renaissance, to do so. Let us do it loud and clear. The message is that 'War can't defeat terrorism.' When they understand this truth the families of the young men and women who are being sent into harm's way in the name of vengeance, and of victory and lasting peace, will come to realise that they should not accept any sacrificing of their children to war, as a patriotic necessity. The War on Terror is a futile waste of young lives. The war is, emphatically, not a solution to the tensions between the haves and have-nots of the world, nor to long-standing differences in customs and religious beliefs.

The Four Generations of Warfare [175]

William S. Lind is a director at the Free Congress Foundation think tank in Washington. He is a specialist in military theory and doctrine, and he vigorously opposed the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, on the grounds of their utter futility.

Lind has identified four generations of warfare, beginning with the Thirty Years War in Renaissance Europe, that ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, and progressing through to the present war in Iraq. Lind categorises the four generations of war as follows.

Lind's analysis makes it clear that the nation state with the largest military budget, the US, is no longer the greatest military power. Nation states, such as the US, have lost their monopoly on warfare. This new reality has yet to permeate the thinking of the Pentagon and American foreign policy. When the new realisation, that it is no longer practical to wage war according to the principles of the past, comes at last it is likely to be too late to save the American Empire.

Uncle Slam's Military Expenditure [176]

The United States is by far the world's largest armoury and munitions factory. So much so that it is difficult to see how the US Congress can continue to justify continuing over expenditure on both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction. Why does the US feel it needs such enormous - obsolete - military capacity? Who are the enemies that the US might still need to engage in a conventional war, state to state? Why are trillions of dollars still being siphoned into black projects to develop terror weapons that are capable of exterminating the populations of entire continents? Following the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War, there are, as yet, no realistic answers to questions such as these.

Students undertaking an International Environmental Problems & Policy project at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, USA, produced the adjacent chart that compares the military expenditure of the US with those of other nation states that also have significant defence budgets.

So the facts are hardly obscure or difficult to find. Young people can assemble this and similar information from readily available data that is widely published. They can analyse and compare the military expenditures of the US with its social and environmental spending, and its aid programs to other countries, and conclude that the figures are way out of whack. Why can't the elected representatives of the American people do likewise? Why can't they halt the insane fiscal emphasis on military spending, and redirect public funds to more worthwhile programs?

The annual US expenditure on defence, that is admitted to and not hidden in black projects, is greater than the sum of the defence budgets of the next nine largest spenders. It accounts for more than 40% of all military spending in the world.
Should we be most worried about China, or Russia, or North Korea? Or should our major concern be with Uncle Slam's arms race with no one?

For those concerned about the damage that takerism is doing to the environment, it will be distressing to note the following quotes from the Observer - London,
"The (US) Defence Department buys enough fuel every day to drive a car around the world 13,000 times."

Since military expenditure does little to raise living standards through the production of essential goods and services, the economists among us will be sad to learn that,
"The Department of Defence employs 1.4 million people on active duty. It is the largest employer in the US, with more employees than Exxon Mobil, Ford, General Motors and GE combined."

What a waste of human energies and talent, to employ so many in the support and prosecution of outdated and futile wars of attrition, around the world. If one adds the personnel engaged in agencies such as the CIA, and NSA, the squandering of human effort on non-beneficial activities is even greater. The military and industrial espionage tasks that such 'businesses' carry out might benefit a few US corporations, but the intellects and energies of people involved could be far better used in beneficial work. If freed from their military and economic warfare jobs, many of those personnel would then add to the store of value and productive capacity available to humanity.

The students at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire developed some comparisons relating to education versus military expenditure.

Leaving aside the issues about what is taught in schools - and what should be taught there, the above comparisons show the trade-offs that the Feds are happy to make between war and the education of young citizens.

The students also compared another social item, health care, with military spending.

Again, the absurdity of the trade-offs that the American Military Industrial Complex (AMIC) is prepared to make in order to possess the largest stock of weapons designed for second generation warfare, is clear.

Many people can see the futility of Uncle Slam's arsenal, including many younger people and those others who have experienced modern warfare first hand. By sending troops to invade places such as Afghanistan and Iraq, the CoW are steadily increasing the proportion of their own subjects who come to understand that a military approach to resolving conflicts is no longer cost-effective, let alone moral. However, the takers in control of the CoW nations will never accept anti-war arguments. Nor will they halt the War on Terror, because it is a major plank in their strategy to retain control of the industrial world, and delay the emergence of a Level 4 Civilization.

The End Of Violence [177]

Hopefully, despite Uncle Slam's nuclear arsenal, "the END is not nigh". However, the end of WAR is very nigh. This is an astonishing proposition to most people, but it is sustainable. Despite the major part that wars have played throughout recorded history, war is now becoming unattractive to aggressors, due to the lowering possibilities of success.

What on earth could make war non-viable? Information can. It will begin to do so within this present decade of history, before the year 1010.

The arguments that the students at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire have used against war are moral arguments. While such reasoning might sway many people it will not stop the CoW nations from attacking any country they deem not to be 'on their side' in the War on Terror. What will soon stop the CoW waging war is an evident curve of diminishing returns on violence.

In a very perceptive manner the authors of The Sovereign Individual, James Dale Davidson and William Rees-Mogg, recognised the way that the information revolution will impact on the ability of aggressors to gain any advantage from waging war. Davidson and Rees-Mogg saw this trend in 1996, well before it was discerned by other commentators. They wrote it thus.

At the time that The Sovereign Individual was written, the reality of intelligent agents able to retaliate against aggressors was an expectation based on trends in technological development. Today, there are far more indications of the emergence of such capabilities.

Consider the earlier segment on the Lightnet and non-programmed reasoning in optical networks. Think about the implications of machines that are already 'dreaming', and of evolutionary circuits that are already creating working electronic designs of non-human origin. Think about the convergence of technologies such as imaging, communications, data storage and translation, and the rise and rise of truly artificial intelligence, all connected to a blazingly fast Lightnet. Think about the shrinking size, plummeting costs and massive spread of digital devices, many of which are largely self controlling, and you begin to get the picture. Individuals are now being equipped with technologies that will enable them to compete with, and even 'out gun' the traditional extortionists and specialists in violence - nation states and their agencies and armies.

Digital imaging is an example of the proliferation of accessible technology and information. On the morning of the 911 atrocity people all over the world were watching the second aircraft fly into the South Tower of the WTC. Most watched TV, but some people were also able to use the Internet to access real-time imagery of the streets of New York, as recorded by the city's traffic lights system. Folk as far away as Sydney, Australia, did this. The imagery was live and uncontrolled or edited. It was captured and recorded on the other side of the world, by ordinary people. Not the media, not corporations, not government propaganda departments, but individual citizens with Internet connections, some technology, and the knowledge to use it.

During the Kosovo conflict a reporter on a US warship photographed the launch of a cruise missile. There was nothing remarkable about that, except that the digital image was almost instantly transmitted to the New York Times and electronically set onto the front page of the edition being printed. It was said, at the time, that the picture was printing to paper in New York before the missile had reached its target. Similarly, in the war on Iraq, US warships in the Gulf and the Red Sea launched Tomahawk cruise missiles at Saddam's forces. Videos of the launches were e-mailed to the Pentagon within minutes and released to the media. The technology used in these examples was not military, it was the normal Internet. The capability to record events and send images around the globe, while the action is still happening, is already available to ordinary citizens.

In the hands of various cybertribes and Leaver-Giver collectives, the ability to record and distribute independently captured images of events from anywhere on Earth will soon become a powerful new force against violence and war. Whether the recorded event is a single mugging, a drive-by shooting, a massacre of fleeing civilians along some road in a war zone, a blatant example of police brutality, or any other form of violence, it can be independently recorded and then seen by the people of the World.

Such a development is part of the phenomenon of reverse surveillance that will come to characterise the 2nd Renaissance and a rapid transition to a Level 4 Civilization and a truly free society. You can learn more about reverse surveillance at the 'Surveillance' freesite. Reverse surveillance principles extend well beyond the use of ubiquitous digital imaging technologies, and include audits of all aspects of federal government operations, by randomly selected teams of citizens. The Feds and the parrot people will be quick to pronounce that such monitoting is "not in the national interest," but it will definitely be in our interests, and those of future generations of humanity.

The 'Surveillance' freesite link is here.

War Crimes - The Ugliest Face Of The Military [178]

The US government has withdrawn from the International Criminal Court Treaty, citing a concern that the court has too much independence and potential to pursue US service members and civilians (i.e. senior officials) for war crimes. Secretary of Defense, Rumsfeld, stated that, "We believe that states, not international institutions are primarily responsible for ensuring justice in the international system." And, "We believe the ICC is an institution of unchecked power. ...power must never be trusted without a check." In other words, the US doesn't want its citizens tried in any other courts than those on its own territory, and within its own jurisdiction. However, history shows that 'victors' seldom prosecute their own forces or officials for war crimes.

Numerous war criminals were tried and convicted following World War II. They were German, Italian, or Japanese. However, there were major atrocities perpetrated by the Allied forces as well. Nobody faced a Nuremberg trial for the murder of at least 200,000 civilians in the deliberate fire bombing of Dresden, in Saxony. Nobody was ever tried, or even reprimanded, over the mass rapes of the women of Berlin during the Russian occupation. And, of course, nobody ever faced trial for the horrific deployment of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Indeed, President Harry Truman called the Hiroshima explosion, "..the greatest thing in history."

The magnitude of these and other atrocities committed by the Allied forces in World War II was as great, if not greater, than the war crimes of the Axis and Japanese armies. The incendiary attack on the university city of Dresden, where many German civilians had gathered to escape bombing aimed at industrial and military targets elsewhere, is recorded as the deadliest of any war to date. Eleven square miles of the city was destroyed by some 3,000 tons of explosives and phosphorous incendiaries. During the war Dresden had become a centre for wounded, both civilian and military. There were 19 hospitals in Dresden at the time. Of these, 16 were badly damaged. Three of the hospitals were totally destroyed, and one of these was the maternity clinic. German figures show that out of 28,400 houses in the inner city, 24,900 were destroyed. Dresden had a population of some 1.2 million people at the time, but after the attacks were over it is recorded that there were not enough uninjured people left to bury the dead.

In February, 1945, there was no military imperative to attack the medieval city of Dresden. The end of the war in Europe was already in sight, there were no wartime industries associated with the city, there were no anti-aircraft or other defences, because the German army did not consider that there was anything to defend there. Dresden's population was swollen with injured soldiers and civilian refugees, but there were hardly any fighting men in the city or its surrounds. There have been claims, after the war, that Dresden was the main communications centre for part of the Eastern front. However, had this been true, the city would have been defended, and it was not.

Two attacks were flown by the RAF, and they were timed so that the second raid would catch rescuers and fire fighting teams in the open. A third attack by the USAF completed the carnage. Given the terrible nature of the new incendiary weapons; the way a mixture of phosphorous, magnesium and petroleum created 1,000 degree fireballs and 100 miles per hour winds that sucked people to their deaths in the inferno, the bombing raids on Dresden were coldly calculated murder.

Here are some quotations from survivors on the ground, airmen in the two attacks, and those who masterminded the fire bombing of Dresden.

The bombing of Dresden was the greatest war crime of the 20th century, by a very large margin. It was more cruel and inhuman than even the American attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was more shocking than the rape of the women of Berlin by the Red Army. Even though the mass violations of every female in that city between 8 years and 80 years of age, and the encouragement of the Russian commanders of their troops in these acts, was so totally reprehensible. The Dresden raids were the ultimate military atrocity. So, there are certainly lessons that can be drawn from it.

However, the fatalistic observation of Deputy Air Marshall Saundby, of RAF Bomber Command, is not the lesson of Dresden. The lesson of Dresden, the greatest war crime, and one of the least known of such crimes outside Germany, is that secrecy made it possible.

During World War II, and in many wars since, strict censorship and ironclad control of the news from the front, made it possible for nation states to wage wars against each other, without the citizens of the combatant countries knowing of the gruesome killing that was going on.

Even today, the CoW have been able to keep the ugly truths about their Iraq and Afghanistan invasions from the world. More importantly, they have largely succeeded in restricting, and 'spinning', the facts coming out of these campaigns, to the extent that their own citizens have been kept in the dark about war crimes that occurred. It has been relatively easy to do this, particularly in Afghanistan, where there is scant communications technology and infrastructure on the ground or in the hands of the local population.

But what if British, American and Australian forces - called the Allies in WWII, but now termed the Coalition of the Willing - were to attack Dresden with incendiaries in 2005? Germany is now saturated with 21st century information technology. Not only do most citizens on the street have hand-held digital capture devices in their phones, watches and other accessories, they are connected to the Internet by wireless networks that blanket the city. The Internet connects the citizens of Dresden to the world, including the American, British and Australian people. If the folk at home, in the CoW nations, were to see anything remotely like the firestorm of February, 1945, on their personal communications screens, the war would instantly become non-viable.

In comparison to the horrors of Dresden, the now famous 'Napalm Girl' photograph taken by Nick Ut in Vietnam, in 1972, was mainstream pictorial. You can show it to most people and they will be upset by it, and critical of whoever dropped napalm on a Vietnam village, but they will not be so consumed by revulsion that they pick up the nearest phone and start screaming down the line at whoever will listen - in government, the military, or the church.

However, had there been a Nick Ut in Dresden, and had he been able to beam photographs and video clips to the world, that would have been the most likely reaction of most people. Viewers would have found it nearly impossible to contain their rage and anger at the sheer evil and inhumanity of the attacks carried out by the RAF and USAF. It would not have taken a year for the impact of the pictures and other information to halt all support for the war - as it did in the case of Vietnam.

If there had been today's imaging and communications technology available in Dresden at the time of the incendiary attacks, World War II would have been called off in March, 1945. A great many lives would have been saved if this had occurred. Sadly, it was not possible then. The power to start or end wars was still in the hands of nation states. The technology to shift this power to sovereign individuals on the streets had yet to be invented and widely dispersed.

It is important to realise that the sole reason that the war continued, and few people in Britain, the US, or Australia were ever aware of the greatest military crime of the 20th century, is that the Allies were able to suppress all pictures and detailed information from the public media. Given the nature and ubiquity of modern digital capture and communications technologies, this censorship would now be an impossibility in a developed country such as Germany. The CoW forces were able to suppress information coming out of Afghanistan only because that region of the world does not yet have such technology in the hands of its population.

The reality is that the returns on violence diminish to zero if the perpetrating states are exposed, and their 'leaders' put at risk of being hunted down by their own people and intelligent 'info-bots'. In the 21st century, war is thus rendered impractical as a means of anything more than a self-defence response on your own ground. It is no longer possible to launch cruel attacks on the non-combatants of other states and expect support from your own population.

This change has been brought about by new technology. In 1945, the wire services, broadcasting and print media were either state owned or in the hands of corporations that could be controlled by the state in matters of the 'national interest' and 'national security'. It was never deemed to be in the national interest to let the population know about war crimes and atrocities, such as Dresden fire bombing by the Allies and the Rape of Berlin by the Russians. Now, the largest communications network, the Internet and its associated wireless web, is in the hands of individual users all over the world. Anyone with a cellular phone and a digital imaging device is a front-line reporter. Rupert Murdoch is no longer the most powerful media baron in the world. You and I are.

Author's Note:
The incineration of Dresden is covered here because it was not only one of the worst atrocities of all time, but it is also the perfect example of a crime that could never be kept secret in the new technological age we now live in. There is another reason as well. I personally felt the anguish of this event, more than 20 years afterwards and some 12,000 miles from where it occurred.
In the 1960s I lived with my parents, next door to a German family who had emigrated to Australia after World War II. Two daughters had been born shortly after they arrived, and I greatly admired the eldest; sadly from afar. These neighbours were a quiet family who kept to themselves. When my folks moved into the house alongside them the father took my mother aside and explained that we should not think anything of noises in the night. He said that no one would be in need of assistance, it was just that his wife suffered from nightmares.
Generally, the noises would not last long, because the husband would wake his wife and calm her. But the screams that came from next door at 2 a.m. or 3 a.m. in the morning were the most piercing and soul chilling I have ever heard. Despite the fact that my room was on the opposite side, and both our house and that of our neighbours had double brick walls, the sound seemed to fill my head.
In time, we learned that the family had lived in Cologne, and that the cause of the wife's nightmares had to do with her having been in Dresden when it was firebombed. When those who knew the truth said "She was in Dresden" the vast majority of Australians did not understand. We had no idea about anything so evil having happened there. The official silence about the Dresden raids was thorough.
Some years later, after I had read Slaughterhouse Five, and done some research, I came to understand what made that woman scream in her sleep, so long after. But I could never know what she must have been feeling and reliving. I would've had to have been to Hell to know that.

Withdrawing Support For Militarism [179]

The problem with revenge is that it lowers the humanity of those who exercise it down to the same level, of even below, those who committed the original crime. Although we can't yet know who was responsible for 911 or 1012, we do now know that forces of the Coalition of the Willing (CoW) have, on occasions, been just as barbaric as the people who killed on those dates. This has been amply demonstrated in Afghanistan and again in Iraq. If you doubt this, seek out more facts about the CoW's use of DU and NDU weaponry and cluster bombs. These horror weapons continue, to this day, to put young children and adult civilians at risk of injury or death from unexploded munitions, radiation, and toxic substances in the ground water and the food chain.

If an attack on civilians is horrific enough, and if the pictures and details reach the homelands of the perpetrating forces, it can stop a war. However, up until now, it has been possible for national armies to keep information of major, and graphically horrific, atrocities secret. It is still possible to do so in relatively low-tech countries such as Afghanistan. What is needed now is wide recognition in the CoW homelands that war itself is one great atrocity. Such realisation must lead to changed thinking and attitudes in relation to militarists who engage in wars, and troops who wage them.

The glorification of war and war heroes derives from thinking and attitudes that are simply wrong-headed. Nationalism and flag-waving propaganda play a part in this, but so does ignorance of the horrors involved. It is no accident that the US and Australian public were so ready to support revenge strikes on alleged terrorist strongholds and states said to harbour terrorists. There has not been a war on the soil of those countries within the living memory of their populations. In contrast, the people of Britain, France and Germany, where there are still many people who have experienced war in their homeland, were far more reluctant to support attacks on the populations of Afghanistan and Iraq.

A mother's account of a visit to see her son in camp, just before he left for Iraq, captures the problem that those who have never experienced war face when the prospect of a conflict looms ahead. They know only the glamorised face of war, and are ignorant of the horrors that are omitted from news reports and many history books. They are aware of the ticker-tape parades for returning troops, the uniformed men with medals covering their chests, and the approval that is typically accorded veterans of war. But they do not know the full truth about war, and they cannot weigh the horrors against nationalistic glory and the adulation that surrounds men in uniform. The American mother said this.

Hopefully that mother's son returned from Iraq, uninjured and without having been involved in helping to carry out atrocities. Many didn't and many won't. Their suffering, the suffering of their families, and the suffering of the 'enemies' they fought, will have in no way lessened the grief of 911. Nor will it have done anything to blunt the threat of future terrorist attacks on the CoW nations. As William S. Lind has observed, "Because these enemies are not states they have nothing we can bomb, no tanks we can take out, no capital we can occupy. And each one is a Hydra. Every time we kill an enemy, we recruit more."

Arguments of a moral nature will not give CoW militarists reason to pause, or to halt the perpetual War on Terror. It is a waste of time telling these people that they should act humanely and with restraint. Many of the aircrews who flew the Dresden raids knew that their actions were morally indefensible. They said, "It was completely uncalled for. You can't justify it." But they were ordered to do it just the same. There are several courses of action that ordinary citizens can take to restrain militarism and halt wars.

  1. Actively discredit the effectiveness of the War On Terror, using the logic of people like Lind and the evidence of failures such as Afghanistan and Iraq. Direct this reasoning at your fellow citizens, who are the ones who ultimately fund the wars through their taxes and fill the ranks of the CoW forces with their own flesh and blood. Help them to understand that it is neither necessary or effective to sacrifice their sons in the War on Terror.

  2. Cultivate an enduring rage against the harming of civilians and the use of terror weapons. This is more than a spontaneous reaction to an horrific photograph or specific atrocity. It is cold, unyielding anger at both the overt and covert institutions of the state that wage war on other people's countries, to no just purpose whatsoever.

  3. Refuse to accord militarists and their institutions any honour. Do not attend parades to welcome troops home. Do not observe anniversaries of a military nature, such as Anzac Day or Veterans Day. Do not contribute in any other way to the glorification of war and the military services. Never, ever, relent in this regard.

  4. Totally reject the Geneva Conventions, as devices put in place by nation states to lend their wars a respectability that war can never have. War is murder, plain and simple.

There is no point throwing the Sixth Commandment in the face of a militarist. The Allied action against the citizens of Dresden, in 1945, was a case of Christians incinerating Christians. The plain, unequivocal, commandment, "Thou shalt not kill", was overridden by precedents and conventions built up over hundreds of years of warfare. The rule of law usurped the rule of God. In the event, even the rule of law was forgotten. Pure evil took charge.

No, the dictum that must be espoused to militarists is one that drives at their self-esteem and egos, at their love of valour and glory and the wearing of a chest full of medals. It is, like the Sixth Commandment, a simple message:

"Real men don't harm women or children."

The parrot people might well denounce the above notions as 'unpatriotic'. However, militarism has no place in a Level 4 Civilization, and this must be made clear to the Feds and those who serve them. This is not about belittling the contributions and sacrifices of the veterans of past conflicts. Nor is it about condemning the vast majority of the serving members of the armed forces. It is about manifestly withdrawing support for further wars, the obscene levels of expenditure on military budgets, and the development of terror weapons.

The Rabbits And The Wolves [180]

The following parable was written by the great American humorist James Thurber (1894-1961). In his day Thurber aimed his lines at the Nazis, in Germany. As you read this piece consider where he might aim them if he were alive today.

The Rabbits Who Caused All The Trouble

... Challenge Restrictions Of Civil Freedoms - Support Secessions [181]
History should surely record that the greatest impact of the 911 and 1012 attacks was not the loss of life or the resultant prosecution of a perpetual war on terror by the CoW nations. The greatest impact has been the loss of civil freedoms in those countries. The excuse of a War on Terror has been used to wage a war on dissent, and to shore up the faltering control of the Old World Order over a failed economic system.

Understandably, there is great concern about draconian 'terrorist' countermeasures being introduced by the US, British and Australian governments. In the US in particular, these additional powers and controls will be equivalent to those of a police state, and all pretence of democracy will quickly vanish. Ominously, the opposition to the changes is being based on the dominant idea of forcing the Feds to relent, and this is doomed to failure. Unless the citizens of the CoW nations take a different approach their families, their careers, their businesses and their civil freedoms will be subsumed within a fascist state. This is exactly what happened to the people of Germany it 1933.

Hitler seized power from a minority position in government in 1933. He was not elected by a majority of the German people. On 30 January, a mysterious fire burnt down the Reichstag, the German Parliament. The very next day, Hitler acted to deny all guarantees of personal liberty, freedom of speech and the right of assembly. An only moderately intelligent Dutch communist, Marinus van der Lubbe, was immediately depicted and tried as the perpetrator of a terrorist plot to destabilise the nation, but there were other victims and scapegoats. Communists, Jews, trade unionists, homosexuals, and other innocents, were made the 'enemies' of the German state. One thing led to another, and in due course, 55 million people died in World War II. Today, there is a widespread belief that the Nazis themselves burnt the Reichstag. But no one is left alive to explain what really happened.

February, 1933, was the right time to have left Nazi Germany, with or without personal possessions and funds. For many Germans there was a life and death decision to be made that year, and most got it wrong. They stayed, and they paid the ultimate price. Now is the time to 'leave' the US, Great Britain, and Australia.

But today, 'leaving' does not mean fleeing abroad. The events in Nazi Germany took place in different times. In 2004, there is no need for citizens to physically leave the land of their birth, simply because a totalitarian, fascist regime, makes a grab for power there.

This is so because secession is now a more practical option than it has been at any time in the past. At first, this is an improbable notion to most people. How could it be easy to opt out of a fascist state, when the regime controls everything? The answer lies in the breakdown in the power of traditional control mechanisms, due to a growing abundance of information, scientific knowledge, new technologies and new ideas. Such unprecedented abundance has the capacity to dissolve the long standing power of scarcity and enable free city states and regions to flourish independently of a centrally managed economy.

Legal actions against individuals and groups proposing secession will certainly be taken by the Feds. But, everyone has an intrinsic right to freedom, and, to the extent that new legislation and powers remove or greatly diminishes that right, there is a clear argument for leaving federalism behind. The ability of city states and regions to opt out, and win the moral argument, is a very different situation to one in which individuals are prosecuted for breaching new security laws within a federation.

In the latter circumstance, in the US, individuals could soon be prosecuted for the 'crime' of 'attempting to influence public opinion'. Besides individual citizens who might post comments on the WWW or speak out in public places, the proposed new powers will give the US Feds the 'legal right' to prosecute environmental, human rights, and anti-globalisation groups. Such controls will be highly effective against activists, journalists, academics, and the like. However, they are totally useless against cities and regions that might choose to abandon the US Federal system completely, and go their own way. This is because, in the latter case, the argument is not about 'crimes' within the federal system, but abandonment of it by a defined collective of people.

When a US city or region abandons federalism, the laws made in Washington, and the self-granted powers of the Feds to prosecute 'terrorists', 'witches' and other menaces, become irrelevant. This is also true for Britain and Australia.

The Fed's War On Dissent [182]

As it is used here the term 'Fed' does not refer to that privately owned institution that controls the US currency and financial system, The Federal Reserve. The term is applied to the federal governments of the CoW nations. The nature and failings of the US Federal Reserve are another story, and one that is already told on several sites on the WWW. Here, we are concerned with the efforts of the US, British and Australian Feds to suppress dissent within their borders, in the name of 'protecting' their populations from shadowy terrorists, radical Muslims, and an allegedly drug-crazed Tooth Fairy.

In the US, the original 'Patriot Act' that was passed by the Congress, in 2001, without having been read by members, was draconian enough. The subsequent Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003, also known as 'Patriot Act II', went all the way to a complete totalitarian rule by federal authorities. Most protections of the United States Constitution were removed, and the new police state was given powers that are even beyond those seized by Adolf Hitler in 1933.

The real war in the US today is on individual rights. It is a war on dissent. Dissent against the total domination of the federal administration in all matters: civil, military, social, economic, cultural, and religious. More than that, it is a war on free thought, new ideas and truth. If this seems improbable to you, take the time to read the Patriot Acts (I and II), they are available on the WWW. Most of the new provisions in these documents are only superficially aimed at terrorists, their real targets are individual rights and freedoms. The Members of Congress who were asked to pass the first of these acts did so without having any opportunity to read it. There's a war on, you see.

Alternative Rights - Very Different Freedoms [183]

In 2001, the United States of America ceased to be the republic the Founding Fathers intended, and became, instead, a democracy. This is so because Patriot Act I overrode the Bill of Rights in the United States Constitution on many points of individual freedom. Patriot Act II converts the US again, this time to a dictatorship and police state. To understand this, one has only to read a few of the explanations that the author and commentator, G. Edward Griffin, gives about the difference between individualists and collectivists, and between republics and democracies.

With admirable clarity of thought, Griffin cuts through the plethora of labels that are used to describe politics and reduces the difference in approaches to citizen's rights to a single question. Where do the rights originate? Individualists believe that such rights are intrinsic, they come with birth. Collectivists believe that the group is more important than its members, and that rights derive from human institutions, from governments and government law making processes. Here are some of the points that Griffin makes about the difference between individualists and collectivists beliefs about rights.

Further, Griffin explains, that whereas a republic is designed on individualist principles, with strict limitations on the powers of law makers to impinge on human rights and freedoms, a democracy is built on collectivism, and the state can grant and remove rights as it sees fit.

When the CoW forces invaded Iraq, the senior US Military Commander in the field announced that the aim was to bring the Iraqi people democracy and the rule of law. That was undoubtedly the plan. The US did not, and still does not, wish to see an Islamic Republic replace the regime of Sadam Hussein. It wants a collectivist government that can remove rights by majority vote and enforce its injustice through the rule of law. Here are some of the key distinctions that G. Edward Griffin makes between a democracy and a republic. He says.

Griffin also crystallises the concept of the political spectrum, which purportedly has 'left' and 'right' orientations, but in reality is only a measure of how much government there is. He says.

It is by no means certain that Griffin is right about the last point - the need for some government - but the rest of his analysis and reasoning is sound.

Instead of needing some government to make things work it is possible to have new-tribalism and a Leaver-Giver model instead. Then there need not be any government at all.

This would not have been possible during the 20th century when Communism, Nazism and Fascism were so much in evidence. At that time the new science and technology needed to support a new society and a Level 4 Civilization did not exist. Managing scarcity was the central principle of economics, and governments were the dominant political force in nation states. However, none of those conditions still apply. Now the game is about managing the distribution of the fruits of abundance, to ensure that maximum good is first done in areas where it is most needed - in the poorest places on earth. Free city states and talent collectives are inherently small enough to operate along tribal lines, and there is no need to have any traditional government to fulfil a political function. Surprising as it might seem, we are on the threshold of an age of rampant individualism and world wide peace.

Contrasting Natural and Collectivist Social Orders - [184]

Balance Versus Dominance

The diagram below shows the major differences between the collectivist social order that is associated with takerism and the older, natural, social order of peoples such as the Australian aborigines and the tribes of the Amazon, who successfully followed Leaver principles for tens of thousands of years.

[The diagram "naturalrights.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

On the left, we see that individual species, humans and others, have inalienable rights. These rights are not granted and they cannot be withdrawn. They stem from the divine order that creates matter, structure, and life.

On the right, there is the concept of human-created collectivism, and bigger and bigger governments, all the way to a global, totalitarian state. The distinguishing feature is that, here, the 'order' in society is made by men, it is not natural. Nor is it divine.

Whereas natural rights, on the left, cover all living things, the artificial rights that are given and taken by nation states, on the right, only apply to humans. The dominant idea is, as Daniel Quinn observes, "Humans belong to an order of being that is separate from the rest of the living community (there's us and there's nature)."

Historically, there have been periods when legal distinctions between animals and humans have been blurred. For instance, in medieval Europe, in the 14th and 15th centuries, numerous trials and executions of animals occurred. One source identifies 34 recorded instances of pigs having been tried and cruelly put to death. Besides pigs; rats, chickens, goats, and bees were similarly tried. Some of the pigs were fully dressed in human clothes at the time they were, inevitably, found guilty. In one case a vicar excommunicated a flock of sparrows that infested his church. All this happened despite the theological stance that animals had no soul, and no morals or conscience. They could not really be guilty of transgressing the Rule of Law.

Clearly, there was a period of confusion in the West when remnants of the beliefs (some would say superstitions) of the old, pre-taker, tribal societies existed alongside the new doctrines and dogma of man-made collectivism and religious interpretation. Today the distinction has all been resolved. Even the UN groups that deal with animal matters are clear that animals do not have natural rights. They are merely 'there' to be exploited.

Thus, the Whale Shark, the largest fish in the world, was recently protected by the UN group that monitors trade in endangered species. The UN did this, not because they recognised that the whale sharks have any natural rights, as part of a divine creation, but because some countries, including the Philippines, India, and Britain, argued that these enormous fish are worth more as eco-tourism attractions than as shark fin soup. It was a purely economic decision, the rights of the whale shark did not enter into consideration. This is unsurprising, since the United Nations is a Taker institution that was established by nation states to look after their interests - not those of the animals and plants on this planet.

In a Taker society that is run on collectivist lines - and they all are - the power of life or death rests with the state. In a true tribal society, one that exists with nature on Leaver principles, the power of life or death is in the hands of the natural order of things, as determined by the design of the material world. Social groupings of the human animal, into tribes, live by the rule of reason, obligation, and the rectification of wrongs. Collectivist governments, on the other hand, gravitate to the total dominance of all matters, including the determination of life and death. In the natural world, where human tribes belong, there is balance and reason instead of dominance. Leavers do not 'conquer' the land and annihilate all those who don't happen to agree with them. Takers do exactly that, until they overextend their reach and exhaust the capacity of their economy and their forces.

The Rule of Reason [185]

In his novel, The Story of B, Daniel Quinn outlines the difference between tribal law and what passes for just law-making in collectivist societies. He illustrates his points with an example relating to adultery, a common enough occurrence in every human community. He writes.

Quinn makes the point that the emphasis in tribal law is always on correcting the harm done. The Rule of Law that applies in collectivist societies, even before they become totalitarian states, places its emphasis on punishment. Even in cases where courts award damages the compensation is always in a monetary form; loss of an arm is worth so much, damage to reputation is worth so much. The philosophy seems to be that every harm can be expressed as a sum of money, and that there is no need to do anything more than fix the price of the damage.

This simplistic and mechanistic view, is characteristic of materialist cultures. But it is totally foreign to the tribal peoples of the Amazon forests or the Australian wilderness. They have laws that aim to repair feelings and lessen animosities. Their aim is to keep their tribes functional and to maintain respect for the rights of the other creatures and life-forms that share their world. Tribal laws reflect a very different mindset, and a system that is much longer lived and successful than modern approaches to law-making and justice.

Divine Order Versus Secular Structures [186]

The word 'God' in the above diagram refers to the divine order of creation, rather than the concept portrayed in the various interpreted religions of the world. God, in the context of the diagram, is the same as the "Great Spirit" (etc) of pre-taker tribal societies. This is the God of earlier times, not necessarily the God of the sages who wrote the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The diagram simply contrasts the secular structures and man-made order of modern nation states and interpreted religions with the natural order that tribes, flocks, herds, hives, and all other collections of creatures follow.

Every social group has rules of conduct and ways of achieving order. The key difference between the two sides of the diagram is that on the left the rules evolve within what is practical, while on the right the rules are determined by elites. Whether those elites are in religious institutions or state institutions they determine how others in the society should live.

In 'modern' society the parrot people of the media often tend to reinforce the notion that the way the churches and the various layers of government say we should live is the way we were meant to live. This is an implicit message, for as Daniel Quinn notes, we are seldom aware of the paradigm that he terms 'Mother Culture,' even though we live by it all the time.

On the left of the diagram is the natural world where all creatures are free to determine, for themselves, how they live. They do this within the practical bounds set by the divine structure of nature and the cosmos. A bird is designed to fly, so it can migrate from one continent to another without regard for any rules other than those imposed by climatic conditions and the availability of food and water along the route. Migrating birds often fly in vee formations, because this arrangement allows them to all have clear, undisturbed, air. Only the laws of aerodynamics govern how the migrating flock travels. There are no imposed rules about the way birds are allowed to fly.

On the right of the diagram the situation is quite different. There are rules in many denominations of the Christian religion that prevent women from becoming ordained ministers. There are rules in some countries, such as China, that allow each couple to have only one child. There are rules that prevent people who flee Afghanistan, and travel to Australia in unseaworthy river boats, from living freely in that country. Instead, men women and children are held in what are effectively prisons, at the pleasure of the Federal government. There are rules that prevent more than limited amounts of money from being taken out of one country and into another. There are rules about rules about rules. And all these rules and laws are human inventions. None of them are natural and divine. Yet, they must all be obeyed, because that is the way we were meant to live. The nature of their rules is a key difference between the natural order on the left of the diagram and the man-made order of collectivist states, on the right.

A Design Implies A Designer [187]

While nobody is likely to regard the man-made order within nations as being in any way divine, many people will question the notion that natural order is a creation of God. The education systems of the 20th century, together with the scientific establishment, have drilled a false belief into our minds. The official truth says that everything in nature, however intricate and wonderful it is, has arisen purely by chance.

Until recently the means of refuting the dogma of deconstructionist science, that everything is explainable by breaking it down into its constituent components, and that the way these modules combine in nature is entirely due to 'chance', were missing. There were many indications that ancient civilizations thought differently to 'modern' science, but these were easily brushed aside by the sceptics. As there is an ingrained belief within our present 'knowledge' - that earlier civilizations were always more primitive than ours - any notion that the old wisdom might actually be right could be dismissed out of hand.

The Sydney Opera House is rightly famous. Sited on a point of land that juts into the harbour its magnificent white shells give the impression of a large ship floating there. The structure took sixteen years to complete, after the proposal of the Danish architect, Jørn Utzon, was selected from 233 international entries. For political reasons the New South Wales government began construction before drawings were complete, in 1959, and the project was fraught with difficulty and continual interference from that point. Although the eventual structure now ranks as one of the wonders of the modern world, Utzon, who is now in his eighties, has never seen it. He quit in frustration. in 1965.

One of the people who worked with Utzon and the Danish-born engineer, Ove Arup, on the practical problems of converting the concept of the huge 'sails' into reality, is Yuzo Mikami. In his book, Utzon's Sphere, Mikami describes how the architect struggled to finish his drawings for these magnificent structures.

Mikami relates the story of how, in 1961, Utzon was almost beaten. He went to pack up the models of the building, believing that they would be of no further use. The problem had been the difficulty of fabricating large curved 'sails' that followed free-form shapes. As he picked up the model Utzon noticed that the smaller shells could be stacked inside the larger ones without too much trouble. The curvature of the shells, that he had always thought to be different, was quite similar. Mikami describes what happened next.

The Sydney Opera House is an incredibly beautiful building. It is, rightly, the most visited tourist attraction in Australia. That the design of the amazing shells of the Sydney Opera House is based on spherical geometry, in which the concert hall uses a radius of 75 metres, and the opera hall is scaled down from that, escapes most people who visit the site. But not a single one would ever doubt that there is a design behind it, and therefore a designer. They would never ever believe that this wonderful structure was created by chance, or that it could have arisen without an architect.

The very existence of a recognisable design implies a designer. Yet, 20th century science, at least in its institutionalised forms, teaches us that despite all the evidence of a proliferation of amazing designs in nature it is all one great accident - chance events created it all.

When The Sceptics Fall Silent [188]

Numerous individuals within the OWO and its ambit of influence over science, economics and philosophy, are vocal sceptics regarding every theory and all findings that run counter to the dogmas of secular, materialist, beliefs. The moment a new challenge to the status quo arises it is vehemently attacked by such people. However, when the sceptics fail to attack a radical new finding, when they are absolutely silent about it, there can be only one explanation. That finding or postulate is unassailable.

This is exactly the situation with the findings of Dr Peter Plichta, referred to earlier on this freesite. The sceptics are silent because to enter any open debate would be to fail. Plichta's work and conclusions are impossible to refute. So the sceptics are completely silent, preferring to attack less ironclad findings of other thinkers and writers, rather than risk drawing attention to new truths that they fear.

There are, of course, adverse comments about Plichta's work. It is so revolutionary and groundbreaking that people who are conventionally 'educated' react to it. The findings are so contrary to what is taught, in chemistry, physics, cosmology, and mathematics, that they stand out from everything else that is written about these fields. The following two examples illustrate the level of the attack to be found on the Internet.

These examples, and others in similar vein, are not reasoned argument. They amount to no more than name calling by the puzzled and perplexed.

There are other people who praise and draw on Plichta's work. An example from the Internet is repeated below.

The above is not reasoned debate either, it is a restatement of some of Plichta's findings. But it seems that the reviewer has understood the significance of the book.

Other seemingly favourable reviews often damn Plichta with faint praise, or seem to misinterpret, or entirely miss, key points in his findings. The following comments fit in that category.

Here, suggestions that Plichta's book is "entertaining", rather than scientifically significant, and that the maths is sound "in general", which suggests that some of it is unsound, are very misleading. The assertion that Plichta's observations about the relationship between absolute zero, the sidereal period of the Moon, and the constant 0.2732...(4-pi divided by pi), is one of many "numerical coincidences" in the book suggests that this commentator has not read it fully, nor understood it.

As mentioned earlier, it is important to read Plichta for yourself. Don't expect to 'get it' all at once. This is a book that you have to read several times and ponder for some time before the pennies all drop. But if you do that they will drop, and you will know something that the elites of the OWO would very much rather you didn't.

The Most Important Freedom [189]

In his book, God's Secret Formula, Peter Plichta writes about truth. He observes that.

"Truth does not need people to understand it,
but people need truth in order to really live."

This statement is, in itself, a fundamental truth. People who have freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, and freedom of religious beliefs, are not really free unless they also have the freedom to know the truth about the world and what lies beyond it. Plichta's work is of immense value in this regard. It answers questions that scientists have either failed to answer or been reluctant to even address. Some of these are listed below.

There is much more to Plichta's findings, but these examples are enough to demonstrate the truly radical nature of his work, and its immense importance. Science and technology based on Plichta will come to dominate the 21st century, just as that of Einstein advanced knowledge in the 20th century.

The most important freedom that present day children, the future citizens of a new civilization, can have is access to the truth. This means not only Plichta's work, but also those of many other revisionist historians and scientists, some of which are outlined on this freesite.

This freedom to know the truth is what really matters in the area of civil rights.

Supporting secessions and the formation of free cities and regions is going to be crucial. Only in these new beachheads of tomorrow’s society will such innovations as home-schooling, and a lack of state censorship and media spin, enable young people to discover the truths they will need to know to build a Level 4 Civilization.

The First Steps Beyond Takerism [190]

Throughout thousands of years and two levels of civilization, people needed money to buy food that was otherwise unavailable. Unless you were a subsistence farmer, there was no alternative to working in a scarcity-driven economy in order to obtain money to pay for food, shelter and the other necessities of life. But now the conditions for a major change exist. Once food and energy become readily available at negligible cost, the way will be open for those with the knowledge to live outside the long-standing system of artificial scarcity.

The transition from the present socio-economic model to a new one based in free cities and regions will either happen progressively, as nation states lose more and more of their power over economic and other outcomes within their borders, or it will happen very suddenly, as a result of a catastrophe. The most likely candidate for the latter circumstance is total failure of the international monetary system, and resultant chaos that renders conventional governments impotent in managing economic and social affairs. The recent collapses of major banks in Argentina gave a glimpse of this scenario. People there survived by becoming self-sufficient at the community level. The financial troubles in Argentina are far from over and, given time, independent regions or free cities might yet arise from the ashes of that previously centralised economy.

There are already examples of a more evolutionary progression towards economic self determination. The Japanese author, Kenichi Ohmae, writing in his book, The Invisible Continent, identifies what he calls "region-states." Singapore, Trinidad-Tobago, Ireland, and New Zealand are said by Ohmae to be operating differently to traditional economies. They are doing this because they have to compete in global markets. National governments can no longer protect them from the changes beyond their borders, so whole regions and cities are finding ways to compete without tariffs and other regulatory mechanisms.

The new region-states also include areas within the wider borders of nation states. Ohmae cites Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Dalian, and Penang as examples of localities that are operating as semi-autonomous parts of larger countries such as India, China and Malaysia. He says that the national economy of the USA is now like a zebra. If you look at it from a distance it appears to be a uniform grey, but when you get close there are stripes of economic activity that are often globalised or moving to that position. Here are some examples of his observations.

The one crucial point that Ohmae misses, at least in his book written in 2000, is the inevitability of the economic pie becoming infinite, early in the 21st century. However, this development does not invalidate his reasoning, it complements and strengthens his ideas. Once the technological elites realise that they don't have to serve the capitalist system in order to eat, they will have even more incentive to set up free cities and regions.

However, these will not be the 'region-states' that Ohmae writes of, they will be true leaver-giver societies with no ties to central administrations in Brussels, Washington, London or anywhere else. The technological elites will quickly realise that they don't need central governments any longer. The very limited civic administrations that exist in free cities and regions will not control anything. they will simply provide services to communities that operate on neo-tribal principles.

All the power in free cities will rest in tribes and the individuals that comprise them. These tribes will not consist solely of technologists and scientists, but all manner of people, young and old, skilled and unskilled. The tie that binds them together will not be due to their religion or ethnicity, but to a shared purpose of creating and distributing the abundance of goods and services that scientific discoveries and new technologies have made possible. The bond will be due to a common leaver-giver ethos.

Some Key Education Principles For Free Cities [191]

A city or region will not be truly free unless its people can know the truth. Not the 'official truth' of state propaganda machines and institutionalised science, but the real truth - at every level and in every field of knowledge. Knowing the truth will be essential to achieving spiritual awakening, and to the realisation of leaver-giver aims.

Because they remain firmly set in traditional forms of government and administration, none of the 'region-states' that Ohmae identifies are free in the above sense. Although these centres are globalising their commerce and switching from 'drop it on your foot' products to knowledge and services centred trade, they are still operating within the capitalist model. More significantly, the new technologies they are applying continue to be understood and taught in terms of the erroneous physics, chemistry and mathematics that fill the old Level 3 Civilization.

Education systems in free cities and regions must be very different to those of nation states. It is not just the methods of encouraging learning that will distinguish education in free cities from that of nation states, but the truth that the knowledge is rooted in. There is no point in swotting to pass examinations in subject knowledge that is wrong. Yet, that is exactly what young people in state education systems are doing. Neither they, or their parents, or their teachers realise this fact, but it remains the case.

When knowledge is revised on a massive scale, as it now must be, the people who often find most difficulty with the change are those who have been 'educated' in what becomes superseded. Children and young people must quickly learn the new foundations of knowledge, and the free cities will concentrate resources and emphasis on their education. When it comes to older people who are presently qualified in the superseded knowledge, there will be difficulties. It will be hard for many of them to accept that they are suddenly back on the bottom rungs of the learning ladder, in company with teenagers who are much younger than they are.

Presently 'uneducated' people who have never been through the state-run schools and universities will have far less trouble with the new knowledge than those who have built their careers on it. Thus, it will often be quicker to establish free cities and centres of abundance in places where there are not many conventionally educated people. In locations that presently have many 'educated' workers there will be strong resistance to change and any new education systems there will need to include content to alleviate the ingrained resentment that many such people will harbour.

Writing in The Sovereign Individual, Davidson and Rees-Mogg identify the same potential source of resistance in relation to new technology . Listing some anticipated consequences of the transition from the industrial to the digital age they say.

Although the authors of The Sovereign Individual are not writing about quite the same thing as a revolution in scientific truth and the foundations of knowledge, the parallels are obvious. The new education systems of free cities will need to do things differently to conventional education models. Some of the necessary characteristics of free city education systems might include.

Note that learning in a free city should not be compulsory. But full opportunities to learn must be readily available to everyone, at all times throughout their life. Religious instruction is a separate process. In keeping with the ethos of a leaver-giver society, free cities should not restrict religious instruction in any way, and various religious groups should be free to combine other learning and religious studies however they choose.

The above points are not intended as a wish list of admirable, motherhood, conditions for free city education systems. Each is likely to be quite important to achieving the types of learning and the levels of learning that will be required in a Level 4 Civilization. Truth and the wide availability of information and knowledge will be essential to successful leaver-giver societies. For neo-tribes to function effectively, all members must contribute to success. And, to be able to contribute in the 21st century, individuals will require knowledge and a passion for learning in their particular field of expertise.

It will not be necessary, or even desirable, for every member of every neo-tribe in a free city to be a scientist or technologist. Indeed, this will be impossible in the early decades because many older and otherwise ill-equipped people will never be able to assimilate the knowledge involved. Neo-tribal principles require that each member contributes to the overall success and well-being of the tribe. In return the tribe offers what is probably the best form of cradle-to-grave security that humans have ever devised. It is the most natural form of social structure, and it incorporates a full transmission of accumulated knowledge and wisdom from one generation to the next.

All animal groups similarly communicate their knowledge to their young. Flocks, herds, packs, warrens, swarms, and hives all have mechanisms that preserve and freely pass on vital communal knowledge about how to survive and prosper on this planet. So do human tribes. State organised education systems, on the other hand, often transmit knowledge selectively, according to what authorities decide should be taught. Thus, it might come to be seen as 'wrong', or even illegal, to teach evolution in state schools. Whole areas of ancient history might be omitted from the curriculums of such systems. Or, worse still, the facts might be 'shaped' to conform with someone's ideas of what is acceptable for citizens to know and believe.

This is not meant to suggest that knowledge isn't sanitised or that truth cannot ever be distorted or suppressed in tribal societies. Clearly, such distortions and omissions of truth can and do happen. But the shaping of truth within tribal groups does not even begin to compare, either in scale or impact, with what happens at the national level in state education systems. During the 20th century there were obvious examples of severe distortions of knowledge in the Soviet Union and China, both communist regimes. A less pronounced, but more insidious, creation of whole bodies of official truth occurred in supposedly 'free' countries such as the United States, Britain, and Australia. In science, a shift in emphasis from a broad, holistic, examination of nature to a narrower, more material, approach took place in the late 19th century, and continues to the present day.

Institutionalised science and national education systems have created an attitudinal disconnect between cause and effect in environmental degradation. Whole generations have been educated to believe that man stands above and apart from the other life forms that he is surrounded by, and that nature exists to be managed and exploited for the benefit of humans. That is, after all, quite in keeping with the long standing assumptions of takerism. The one big problem is that it isn't true. The natural world was not created for us to exploit at the expense of other creatures, and we do not have any right to exterminate other species at will, just because our technology enables us to do so.

Most importantly, modern science that excludes all possibilities that it cannot touch and test in a laboratory is not necessarily superior to the knowledge of earlier tribal peoples who recognised both the material and non-material worlds. Modern science that shuts out the metaphysical realm is actually deficient and inferior to earlier systems of knowledge and wisdom.

Free cities and regions will recognise the need for people of all ages to study both the modern and ancient collections of knowledge. In particular, anybody who wants to will be able to explore the details of subjects such as sacred geometry, musical structures and the power of vibrations. These are areas where earlier civilizations held knowledge that is often more clear and meaningful than modern coverage of the same areas. Only recently, with the modern study of metaphysics, under the name of quantum mechanics, has it begun to be recognised that all matter is ultimately composed of vibrations, and that the faith that tribal peoples, such as the Australian aborigines, have in sound as a healing medium is likely to be well justified. Until the geometric nature of music is widely understood there will still be many people who dismiss the use of vibrations from the Didgeridoo to cure a range of serious ailments, as a myth. Sadly, that is the way they have been educated to think: that all knowledge from earlier times that is not readily explainable in terms of modern theories has to be nonsense.

Why Study Sacred Geometry? [192]

The importance of learning geometry as the ancients taught it is to cut through the abstractions that man has overlaid on the natural proportion and order of the universe. It is not a new-age hippie reason, but a serious pathway to a full comprehension of the truth about numbers.

Geometry does not need numbers in the sense of "one", "two", "goo", "zoo". It works with lengths and proportions. It is practical to construct the patterns of sacred geometry using only a pencil, a drawing compass, and a straight edge. Just as the relationships between notes and tones in music are independent of any contrived number system, so are the lengths, proportions, and angles of geometry. Indeed, geometry was described by the 18th century German poet and natural philosopher, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as "frozen music."

Robert Lawlor's wonderfully illustrated book, Sacred Geometry - Philosophy and Practice, provides some very revealing insights into the history of our present-day numerical conventions. Lawlor shows how the adoption of a decimal system that includes zero was significant in masking the properties of the underlying natural numbers. Although both the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used decimal systems, they had separate symbols for each unit of growth, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on. During the twelfth century the works of the Arab mathematician, Al-Gorisma, were translated into Latin. Both the originally Indian numerals, 1 through 9, and the concept of zero, began to influence Western thought and mathematics from that time. Due to the practicality it afforded to calculations in commerce, zero together with the Arabic numerals, was quickly adopted by the merchant class in Europe.

Some excerpts from Lawlor's book explain the way in which zero changed mathematics.

[The diagram "numbers.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

Free cities and regions will provide education options that enable all members of society to study sacred geometry and ancient knowledge. This will greatly assist these centres to adapt to and embrace the ideas that will drive science and technology in the 21st century, and lead to the generation of the levels of abundance necessary in a leaver-giver society. Without the deep insights that such studies can bring, people will be likely to find it harder to understand and apply the right knowledge. All 'educated' people will need to re-learn and adapt much of the 'truth' they have accumulated during the industrial age. Children, on the other hand, will need to begin their education on a sound footing from the start. It should be quite practical for them to be fluent in new knowledge, that draws on Peter Plichta's work, by the time they are twelve years of age.

Kenichi Ohmae feels that Japan will be at a disadvantage in the new age, because of an inability to quickly free regions from central control. But that won't be the deciding factor in transforming the economy. The crucial element will be the capacity of the people to be able to accept discovered truth when it contradicts hundreds of years of teaching. In this regard traditional societies like Japan might have more affinity with ancient knowledge and truth than nations that have been deeply 'educated' in the truth of the West. Although Japan is a thoroughly modern industrial power it has probably retained its traditional culture better than any other country has managed to do. Combined with a 2nd Renaissance education system, their more receptive attitudes to surprising new knowledge, that accords with many ancient rituals, might be a decisive advantage for Japan.

It could be the ease with which the various countries, that are presently nation states, can reintroduce ancient teachings and forms of thought into their education systems that becomes the decisive factor in preparing for a Level 4 Civilization. Japan might have centralist bureaucracies to overcome, but so do all other nations. One difference between countries such as the USA and Australia, and those such as Japan and India, is that the latter have knowledge traditions, in mathematics, music, geometry, and astronomy, that stretch back thousands of years. All America and Australia have in this regard is materialistically oriented theories that evolved in Europe during the past two centuries. Most of these notions now need to be unlearned as a result of Peter Plichta's profound insights.

The Burden of Having A Modern Education [193]

It is noticeable that the few people who argue against Plichta on the Internet do so by using 'knowledge' that he has shown to be false. They try to disprove his findings using what they have been taught as 'truth.' The notions are so ingrained in their minds that they seem not to be aware that they are using what amounts to circular logic.

One such reviewer of God's Secret Formula, on the site, takes Plichta to task using what he has 'learned' about base notation. He writes, in part,

The person posing the above argument is, judged from his writing, neither unintelligent nor uneducated. In fact, he could be said to be too educated in the abstract mathematics of today's science. As a result he misses the point that Plichta is reverting to the natural number series that is masked by the conventions that have been adopted to make a decimal system of only nine numerals and zero function. Had this reviewer also learnt sacred geometry and the history of numbers he might have understood this better than he appears to have done.

Plichta obtains the natural sequence below by abandoning the convention adopted along with the use of zero. This is the first line result below.

[The diagram "numbers81.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

The subsequent lines show how the convention is unmasked. This is done here in a diagrammatic, non-mathematical way. So that even your granny might be able to understand it. Peter Plichta has also proved the soundness of his reasoning using mathematics. He has done this in both of his books. Before you reject his conclusions, read his findings and study his explanations.

The fact that there is an artifice, a convention, involved in the decimal system in use today is not in any doubt. The great French mathematician, Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, put it thus, when explaining decimal notation and any other base in the abstract number system built around the Arabic numerals and the use of zero.

The 'convenience' of the number system introduced into medieval Europe caused it to be widely adopted for trade and commerce. Although it was not well suited to science, the abstract number series became the scaffold for modern mathematics and the investigation of the laws of the universe. It is significant that the Cistercian Order, which had been founded in 1098 near Dijon in France, strongly resisted the introduction of a decimal system that incorporated zero. Since their philosophical and practical knowledge was the foundation of the sacred geometry used by Masonic Guilds in the construction of the Gothic cathedrals across Europe, the Cistercians were well aware of the divine nature of harmonic proportions and inversions within the natural number series. They fully realised that the adoption of an abstract number series would serve to mask the geometric nature of matter and music from future generations.

Robert Lawlor's book, Sacred Geometry, is rich in practical exercises and examples that enable students to 'see and touch' proportional realities. Just as children who work through Plichta's tiles exercise, described earlier, can immediately comprehend Newton's inverse square law, students who use a drawing compass and a straight edge to construct the various geometric forms in Lawlor's workbook examples can quickly grasp the essence of mediation, and of arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic progressions.

Why is this important? Because modern science now understands that all matter is formed by vibrations and that these progressions, that are found within the natural number series, in both geometry and music, are fundamental to understanding the phenomena involved. If these young people want to become 21st century technologists and travel to other star systems in their lifetimes, this is some of the foundation knowledge they will need to have.

There is also another reason for young people to clearly comprehend the basis of all forms and vibrations. It is the sense of wonder they will experience as the patterns and numbers are revealed to them. By comparison, the study of abstract mathematics and its derived science is far less uplifting. There is cleverness there, but not the same wonder or sense of the divine. Scientists and technologists who have been educated in the traditional manner are also aware of the same progressions and inversions that are explored in Lawlor's workbook examples. However the context in which they learnt about these natural relationships was different to that in which 21st century students of sacred geometry will acquire their insights.

In the 20th century case the prevailing rationalistic philosophies of institutional science and the abstract nature of the number series that underlies modern mathematics combined to obscure the natural wonder of the subject. Educated 20th century people were, and still are, generally unaware of the real significance of the relationships they studied in geometry and the natural numbers. As a consequence their understanding of these areas is somewhat superficial. The fact that they believe that they have been taught the latest, and therefore the most complete, knowledge about geometry and numbers becomes an impediment to their acceptance of 'strange' insights in these fields.

Changing their view of reality is made even harder for them when those 'new' notions turn out to have been well known thousands of years earlier, by civilizations that they have been taught to regard as 'primitive' and inferior to our modern society. Therefore, disbelief is often their first reaction. Their second reaction is recourse to what they know, the knowledge they acquired during a good 20th century education, to disprove the 'erroneous' new notions confronting them. It's all very sad, but also very typical of people who have simply learned the wrong knowledge in the first place.

Why Study Music? [194]

It is important to study music for the same reasons that it is necessary to study sacred geometry. We need to rediscover what the ancients knew, and to integrate those insights with the most recent findings in fields such as physics, cosmology, biology, and sociology. This is not the same as learning to play a musical instrument or to appreciate musical styles and performances. Nor is it the same as studying sound in a laboratory. This study of music is about the way sound is organised in the form of music and of the proportions, progressions and inversions involved. Again, geometry is involved, and so are elements of the divine and metaphysical.

The cover notes of the book, The secret Power of Music, by David Tame, describe his work as follows.

"Drawing upon the wisdom of ancient civilizations as well as contemporary scientific data. David Tame offers a challenging and timely alternative to the widely-held modern notion that music is an intangible art form of little practical significance."

Indeed, as Tame and others who have studied the geometric order of music have found, music is ultimately about vibrations and vibrations are the basis of all matter. Young people who will become the scientists and technologists driving new abundance in this century will need to develop such understanding. That is why free cities and regions will include this knowledge in their education systems.

Here are some excerpts from Robert Lawlor's Sacred Geometry.

Today, many people believe that musical scales are human inventions. Some attribute their development to the ancient Greeks or to mathematicians in India. But the truth is that such scales are natural phenomena, they have been discovered by humans, such as Pythagoras, - not invented by them. During the 20th century, state education systems and the media presented music as an art form. In reality music is at the core of the science of harmonics. An understanding of musical patterns and geometries leads to an understanding of matter and the cycles of the universe. As humanity continues to expand knowledge exponentially, into the 2nd Renaissance, knowing about the harmonic nature of everything there is will rank as one of the most vital insights a scientist or technologist can bring to bear in their work.

There is another insight to be achieved through the study of sacred geometry and musical vibrations, it is that we humans are not above other living things. All that our intellect enables us to do is discover the natural order of the universe. We can no more change that order than can horses or pigs. It is sheer arrogance to believe, as takers implicitly do, that we humans have a 'right' to exploit nature and unfettered power to control it. Just as Plichta's work reveals a design that requires a designer, so too does the existence of the natural structure of scales and harmonics strongly indicate the existence of a 'creator' intelligence higher than our own.

In The Secret Power of Music, David Tame writes:

As evidence of the all-pervasive nature of musical patterns and proportions in our collective psyche there is also the example of the Ur-song. Here is some of what David Tame writes of it.

Until the musician David Hindley studied it, the song of the skylark was regarded as simply a beautiful sound. Nobody suspected that this little bird was actually singing recognisable music. When he slowed down a recording of the birdsong, Hindley found that he could distinguish individual musical notes. The song was highly compressed; from forty eight seconds of it he was able to extract almost thirteen minutes of sheet music. This could be played like any other piece. More than that, Hindley found that the song of the skylark used the same principles of composition as human music, and that the particular birdsong that he transcribed bore a striking resemblance to structures in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.

When he studied the song of the woodlark, David Hindley found that it changed tune in keeping with the rules of classical sonata form, and contained similarities to J. S, Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues. Scientists are now discovering that many animals communicate using compressed sounds, and that the brains of the receivers seem to be able to expand the messages within barks or squeaks and comprehend them. However, the discovery of classical musical structures within the songs of birds is quite astounding. It indicates that we humans are not the only creatures to use musical scales and compose melodies.

Vibrations and Matter [195]

"Nothing is 'solid', nothing is impenetrable, it is all vibrations; all energy.

Everything emanates from the same source.

Everything is a voice or speech resounding over the world, through the entire universe, through micro cosmos and macro cosmos.

It vibrates through the shining of the stars.

It shines in the orbits of the planets.

It is whispered through the gentle breeze and is murmured in the depths of the forest.

It is whistled through the sirens of the factories and is heard in the noise of the machines.

It is sung over the cradle and spoken at the grave.

It is vague feeling or notion, wisdom and belief.

It is knowledge, recognition and hope.

It is death, resurrection and life.

It is colour, vibration and light.

It is everything that can in any way be sensed, thought and experienced."

... Martinus

It is worth learning geometry as the ancients taught it because music is geometric. It is worth studying music in a geometric sense because this uncovers truths about vibrations and patterns of vibrations, Vibrations are important because all matter is formed from them. The 2nd Renaissance involves an explosion of knowledge and discovery that is taking humanity beyond the old 'drop in on your foot' materialistic and mechanistic view of the world and the universe beyond. The 21st century talent collectives that will build new technologies to defeat scarcity and create abundance will do most of their work in the realms of invisible vibration patterns. All young people, both boys and girls, now need to learn within these fields of knowledge, because humanity's future will be built there.

Ernst Chladni (1756-1824) was a German physicist who is credited with founding the study of acoustics. He lightly covered glass or metal plates with fine sand and studied the harmonic vibrations caused by drawing a violin bow across their edge. The patterns that formed in the sand on the plates made the sound waves visible and enabled them to be studied.

Hans Jenny (1904-1972) was a Swiss medical doctor and natural scientist. Jenny extended the technology of studying sound waves by inventing what he called the tonoscope. This instrument used crystal oscillators to enable the operator to set specific frequencies and amplitudes. Jenny placed various substances, such as sand, iron filings, water, and viscous liquids, on vibrating plates and studied the patterns produced by the sound waves. Since the tonoscope did not use any electronics it also afforded Dr Jenny the opportunity to directly view the physical images of vowels spoken by the human voice. He termed the new branch of science, Cymatics - the study of waves and vibrations.

The image above was produced by Jenny's tonoscope when a specific tone was applied to water. The amazingly geometric pattern below was the result of sending a tone through turpentine oil. It is hard to look at these patterns and not conclude that geometry is, in fact, 'frozen music' They give considerable credence to the assertion that everything is vibrations, that nothing is really 'solid', and the 'thing' that you can drop on your foot or trade in the marketplace, is really a wonderfully geometric pattern of electromagnetic energy.

When the tone or harmonic is changed the patterns on the tonoscope change. But there is always observable evidence of number, proportion and symmetry.

If everything is composed of vibrations, and if there is always geometric and numerical structure involved, Einstein's belief in order - that nothing happens by chance in nature - appears to be have been correct. The intervals and order of musical scales will always govern the infinite number of patterns that emerge. The numerical order of the Prime Number Cross, which Peter Plichta has shown to regulate the structure of the chemical elements is then a manifestation of this reality. God's secret formula is numerical and harmonic.

Hans Jenny's images give the lie to the old assertion that, "There are no straight lines in nature". At the fundamental level of the vibrations that give form to what we perceive as matter there are, it seems, only lines, angles and arcs. Thus, straight lines are everywhere in nature, just look at the two patterns here if you doubt it. The first time that physicists were able to gaze at the structure of an atom, using an electron microscope that magnified the structure 260 million times, they saw geometric patterns. Despite the fact that nothing like the structure or mechanisms postulated by Niels Bohr has ever been observed within atoms - only geometric order - institutionalised science persists with using and teaching the Bohr model of the atom, even to the present-day.

Interestingly, Jenny found that although there is no similarity between the spoken vowels of our modern languages and the patterns produced on the tonoscope, pronouncing the vowel sounds of the ancient Hebrew and Sanskrit languages caused the sand on the plate to take the shape of the written symbols for those vowels!

Hans Jenny's wonderfully illustrated book, Cymatics, was first published in 1967 and continues in print today. In it he voices the following impression gained from his extensive work.

Although this conclusion was surprising to most people, it should not have been. No less a theoretical physicist than Albert Einstein had already said:

Learning To Lead [196]

There will be no shortage of talented scientists and technologists who can be attracted to free cities. But the same cannot be said for truly visionary leaders. Such people are already hard to find, and there is no educational strand or developmental mechanism for producing them, at least not in the old Level 3 Civilization. What have always been churned out there - in the 'leadership' category - are managers, executives, and militarists. People with those values and backgrounds are most unlikely to possess the skills or attitudes that will be required of the leaders of talent collectives and neo-tribal societies.

Management within a Level 3 Civilization and leadership within a Level 4 Civilization are not so different in areas like communication and motivation, but they are based on entirely different value systems. Since the old education systems and organisational cultures created and reinforced old values, managers from the past can't be counted on to do the best job of leading and energising free cities and regions. New leaders will emerge from areas and backgrounds that are not steeped in traditional managerialism. New leaders will also be developed from the ranks of the young, who will learn their leadership skills within 2nd Renaissance cultures and value systems.

Martinus Thomsen (1890-1981) was born out of wedlock and in quite poor circumstances. He began to work as a herd boy in rural Denmark, at the age of eleven. Despite having only limited schooling in a village school, on two days of the week during the summer and autumn, Martinus developed an entire theory of creation and existence, authored some 40 books, produced many papers and gave innumerable lectures on philosophy, science, and human development. An institute bearing his name continues to this day in Denmark, to keep his work and ideas alive and available to the world. These achievements are, of themselves, remarkable for an 'uneducated' dairyman living during the peak of the industrial revolution and the blooming of academia and institutionalised science. Martinus' predictions about the future of humanity were also extraordinary.

More than 70 years ago Martinus was able to foresee such technologies as; supercomputers, robotics in manufacturing that would initially make people unemployed but subsequently free them to pursue their moral and spiritual growth, credit cards and money-less transactions, human thought processes controlling machines, and teleportation. Remember, that although we now know that scientists have been able to teleport photons in a laboratory situation, Martinus had his insight well before Star Trek, and even before there was television to broadcast that now famous science-fiction series. What are the chances that a non-scientist and academic 'nobody' could presently predict new technologies that will exist in the year 2075, with similar accuracy?

Our interest here is not with the theories and predictions of Martinus. It is his philosophies and value system that are relevant. Martinus set out clear principles for humanity to live by. According to him, to become a person of good character, one should:

  1. Remove the concept of 'enemies' from your consciousness.

  2. Never retort to anger, slander or other forms of attacks which are directed against you.

  3. Never say anything evil about anyone or anything.

  4. Be absolutely true and honest under all circumstance in life.

  5. Remain absolutely untouched by flatter, praise or blame.

  6. Never participate in killing, hurting or maiming living creatures.

  7. Never let your thoughts move away from working on how you may best serve your fellow beings.

Such guidelines as these are based on a value system that fits a Level 4 Civilization, and free cities and regions, like a glove. But it is hard to find examples of political leaders, business executives or managers, let alone any militarists, who appear to live by such dictums. It's not that there are not many people in the world who think and live as Martinus recommends. They are to be found in many walks of life, not only in charities and churches, but many other areas as well. The problem is that hardly any of the people presently running nation states think or live like that. Can you name one who does? Perhaps Nelson Mandella did, or Aung San Suu Kyi might, if she had her freedom and control of the government in Burma.

But, can you think of anyone in power in the CoW nations who fits the bill? No? Then why are you supporting them, paying taxes to them and generally being their model citizens? Because you have a mortgage and the bank might foreclose on the loan if you lose your job? That's no excuse when mothers and their children are dying in Afghanistan and Iraq, every day - while you pay off your home, your second car and your home entertainment system!

Oh, so you're 'looking after Number One first'. Well, according to Martinus, you're not it, your fellow beings are Number One.

Moreover, the 'things' that we are all so intent on possessing are really not worth having, because they don't bring real happiness. Only giving does that. Taking never provides us with more than a few moments of satisfaction, if that. When the majority of the people in the West understand this, and begin to live as Martinus suggests, all the killing in the world will stop, and all the famines will cease. Poverty will gradually be overcome, human civilization will go up several gears, and we will all move ahead - together. It can happen. In fact, it has to happen.

Of course, you don't really need to give up all the 'things' you covet, such as your cars and home entertainment systems, in order for the world to become a more equal and better place. All that is required is a concerted effort to raise the living standards of all the people who presently exist in poverty. Conventionally educated - one could even say 'conditioned' - managers and economists can't see this because they continue to believe that resources are scarce, and always will be. New leaders, on the other hand, are people who understand that resources have been deliberately kept scarce to support capitalism and ensure profits. New leaders are people with new ways of thinking about economics and the promise of new technologies. They see that instead of keeping the world economic pie small, and serving the biggest slices to the so-called developed nations, it is already practical to greatly increase the overall size of the world economic pie. Bigger slices of it can then be served to all the people on the planet.

New leaders are distinguished from old managers by their way of looking at problems, and by their values. In the first area, new leaders have a different understanding of realities and different, often more radical, solutions to improving the lot of disadvantaged people. In the second area, new leaders have and uphold values similar to those of Martinus. Their outlook is more collaborative/supportive and less combative/competitive than their managerial counterparts in the old social order.

Presently, men predominate in positions of authority and leadership in the Level 3 Civilization, however women may well prove very suitable as leaders of talent collectives and neo-tribal councils and services providers in free cities and regions. This is because female nature is often closer to the required values profile than that of males. Women are inherently nurturers and conciliators, they are more likely to seek to resolve arguments through negotiation than by the use of violence. All leaders in a Level 4 Civilization will need to have the very inclinations that most women possess.

When free cites are set up, one of the key watchwords should be 'Give The Girls a Go'.

Some Other Guidelines For Free Cities [197]

Besides the need for a fundamentally new education system, along the lines outlined, there are some other changes that free cities and regions should consider. Most of these innovations are designed to moderate the inclination for the old habits of 'rulers' in the Level 3 Civilization to reassert themselves. Except in circumstances where entirely new cities are founded in desert or remote regions, there will, inevitably, be a need to radically remodel or dismantle the institutions of the former nation state. In order to attract people with the technological expertise to enable each free city to rise above the economics of scarcity and develop a leaver-giver society, the conditions of residence will need to be attractive.

People who join the building of a new civilization will not wish to reduce their standards of living, and there is no reason that they should need to do so once the new engines of abundance are in operation. There could be a short period in which things don't get a lot better, but the conditions should never become worse than they were under the old order. Some of the fundamentals that people in free cities will expect are listed below.

Other Circumstances that People in Free Cities Should Look For. [198]

These are important because they will not always be obvious to those who have grown up and lived under nation state regimes. People won't necessarily expect these conditions and freedoms because they have never had them before. However, these initiatives will be crucial to a successful transformation to a Level 4 Civilization. If they are not put in place it will be too easy for a new society to slip back into the familiar old structures and practices that typified politics and government in nation states and federations. If we want no more of such things we must ensure that we put the following conditions in place.

As the above items show, there are a multitude of issues involved in achieving a wide restoration of civil freedoms in the 21st century. But it will be essential to tackle this task as part of the process of moving society and civilization beyond the failing concepts of capitalism and federalism.

It is clear that one of the major difficulties that secessionists will face is identifying the less familiar issues, so that they can be addressed. Whenever matters of civil freedoms are discussed, the obvious issues are instantly perceived. For example, people know that freedom of speech and association are fundamental rights that must be attained and then preserved. But the issue of the right to know the truth is not obvious to many citizens because they believe that our present society both teaches the truth in its schools and records and pursues it in all fields - history and science to name just two. Nothing could be further from reality, but most people have been conditioned to think that what they read, see on TV, and even hear that their children have been taught at school and university, is correct and well-proven knowledge. It isn't, most of what is presented as truth is based on incomplete theories, or worse still, it is deliberate misinformation and lies.

As already noted, the most important freedom that present day children, the future citizens of a new civilization, can have is access to the truth. Yet, because they do not recognise the need for this freedom in their present-day society, many parents will not perceive a need to do anything about this vital freedom. They trust those who supposedly 'know' to tell them and their children the truth. They don't necessarily trust their present government to keep its election promises, nor do they trust corporate developers to commission valid environmental impact studies for their projects, and so on. The general public are aware that many corporations are managed by people with questionable ethics and few scruples, who might often sanction their marketing and public relations departments lying to the community. But these ordinary citizens trust the state education system, the teachers, the university lecturers, and the like, to present the truth and qualify doubtful theories. Likewise, they trust mainstream scientific institutions to provide correct information and facts about the natural world and the universe beyond. Sadly, their trust is often misplaced, although they remain unaware of such betrayals.

... Learn About NEW Science and Share Your Understanding Widely. [199]
Science involves making observations and forming theories to explain the results of observations. While modern science has made rapid progress in the development of technologies that enable ever more detailed observation of the natural world, there has been less change in its theoretical framework. With a few exceptions, such as the Big Bang theory, most of the theoretical models used by institutionalised science were originated prior to 1920. There are many gaps and inconsistencies in current scientific theories, and there is no single unified model - no Theory Of Everything.

This is not to say that modern science is not making great advances. Due to vastly improved equipment for experimentation and observation, and because of increasingly powerful information processing tools, scientific discoveries are pouring out of laboratories and research centres. New technologies based on these discoveries are transforming our lives, and providing the basis for abundance and the end of capitalism. However, this does not mean that institutionalised science has valid theoretical explanations for all the new discoveries and technologies. It simply doesn't.

Scientific Theories Fall Into Three Domains [200]

Not all theories have the same degree of scope. Many attempt to explain quite localised phenomena, while others seek to explain the nature of the universe. The following diagram shows how scientific theories can be considered to fall into one of three domains, or to apply to all of them. When comparing various theories it helps to have this diagram in mind, because not all scientists are theorising at the same level.

[The diagram "theorydomains.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

In 1687 Sir Isaac Newton published his laws of mechanics and gravitation. These still hold good today provided that the problems are in the first domain of theory, where we are able to observe effects with our senses. Thus, an engineer can design an amusement park ride using Newton's mechanics, or NASA can calculate the trajectories and orbits involved in putting an astronaut on the Moon using the same principles. The theory always holds good in observable, 'drop it on your foot', circumstances.

However, Newton's laws have been found to break down at sub-atomic scales and where high speeds and cosmic scales apply. To address these failings Albert Einstein, together with others such as Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, and Paul Dirac developed alternative theories in areas such as relativity and quantum mechanics. These theories operate in the second domain of the diagram, beyond the abilities of our normal senses to observe the phenomena involved. Scientists have used technologies such as cloud chambers, scanning tunnelling microscopes, and radio telescopes to 'see' events in this domain, and 'prove' or 'disprove' their theories.

In both the first and second theory domains it is possible to test hypotheses by observing events that involve material objects. This is not the case in the third theory domain. There, the events are of non-material origin. The Russians seem to have done the most scientific research in this domain during the 20th century. In other countries there has been a reluctance to venture into the non-material, metaphysical, world. Yet, it is there that the whole truth about the universe, and our existence within it, must be sought. Neither of the other two domains can ever yield a complete 'theory of everything' (ToE). Because non-material phenomena are real, albeit impossible to observe and difficult to explain, this domain must be considered fully in formulating any credible 'theory of everything'.

Alternative Theories of TIME [201]

An illustration of a conceptual evolution in physics can be found in various theories about what time is, or whether it even exists at all. The following outline does not attempt to explain the full details of each theory, readers who are interested will need to seek these out from the many available sources. What the outline does is contrast the ideas involved in explaining the nature and operation of that very familiar phenomenon - time, across the theory domains. The various notions are extraordinarily different, yet is some aspects later theories are also quite similar. As scientists seek to understand the universe they get closer and closer to the truth about time.

Julian Barbour is a theoretical physicist who works independently from his farmhouse in Oxfordshire. In-between translating scientific papers from Russian to English, as a means of earning an income, Barbour has sought to understand time at its deepest and most fundamental level. His book, The End of Time, sets out his remarkable theoretical insights on this subject. It is the culmination of a quest that began in 1963 when he read the account of the great English physicist, Paul Dirac (1902-1984), about his attempts to merge Einstein's general theory of relativity with quantum theory. Dirac could not unify the two. Furthermore, Dirac formed the view that the concept of combining the three dimensions of space with time - to produce 'space-time' - is flawed. (Many years later Peter Plichta reached the same conclusion, from a different line of inquiry.) Dirac wrote, "This result has led me to doubt how fundamental the four dimensional requirement is in physics."

Despite the title of his book Julian Barbour does not conclude that Einstein was completely wrong, only that the true nature of time is hidden deep in the equations of general relativity, and that Einstein did not fully realise what he had found.

The following is a synopsis of several theories about time.

The laws of motion that Newton established require absolute space and absolute time. Three dimensional space stretches to infinity in all directions and time operates, as Julian Barbour describes it, like a clock in the grandstand. Also, Newtonian time is always thought of as having a consistent direction; from the past to the present. Although the Newtonian equations work equally well in either direction, our observations and experiences suggest to us that time operates only in one direction. As mentioned above, Newton's laws are quite practical when applied to our day to day activities, and they also predict the movements of the various planets and other bodies that we can observe.

However, just because a theory seems to explain what we see and experience it does not follow that it is correct. Theories once supported a notion that the Earth does not move and, because the ground does not seem to move, such theories were believed. But we now know that, despite its seemingly 'fixed' state, our planet both rotates about its axis and moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. Newton's laws seem to explain how objects move, and his notion of time seems to fit our experience, but what we think is happening might not actually be what's happening.

Having been greatly influenced by the ideas of the physicist Ernst Mach (after whom Mach numbers are named), Einstein developed a model in which objects move in relation to all other objects, rather than absolute space and absolute time. Moreover, in accordance with the equations developed by James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge University, in 1860, Einstein's time ran at different rates for different observers. Someone in a space ship travelling at a significant proportion of the speed of light would experience slower time than a person who remained behind on Earth. The astronaut's clocks would slow down relative to those left at home. This prediction seemed weird to most people, including scientists, but its truth has since been demonstrated experimentally.

The other major difference between Einstein's 1915 model and that of Newton was that it accorded time the status of a fourth dimension and fused it with three dimensional space to create space-time. This aspect of his General Relativity model reflected the ideas of Hermann Minkowski, who first proposed an integration of space and time, in 1908, three years after Einstein submitted his Special Relativity paper. Minkowski had said, "Nobody has ever noticed a place except at a time, or a time except at a place". In Einstein's model space-time is distorted by the mass of objects, such as the sun, so that light rays are bent if they pass close to it. This hypothesis was experimentally demonstrated in 1919, during a total eclipse of the Sun. The speed of light is an important value in Einstein's famous equation e = m c2, but its full significance has been obscured for many decades.

Maxwell had found, to his surprise, that light is an electromagnetic wave in which electric and magnetic fields oscillate in unison. The following diagram illustrates this phenomenon. The magnetic vibration is at 90 degrees to the electrical vibration.

Textbooks and most scientists quote the speed of light as 2.9979 x 1010 centimetres per second. However Einstein always rounded this to 3 x 1010 centimetres per second. In his equation e = m c2, the symbol c has the value 3 x 1010 cm. Peter Plichta's work has not only shown this to be the correct value, but also a vital element of the design of the universe. While institutionalised science could pass off the value of the speed of light, one of the most important natural constants yet discovered, as a fractional value - 2.99792458 - its elegance and significance was masked. That is no longer possible, and the people of the planet will soon begin to benefit from deep knowledge about light, space, time, and energy.

New understanding of what time is comes from Plichta's discoveries. His conclusions are in reasonable accordance with those of Julian Barbour. However, Barbour goes further and seeks to explain not only what time is but where it is. But first, back to the speed of light.

In most non-scientific publications Einstein's equation is written in the abbreviated form in which e = m c2. In other words, Energy is equal to Mass times the square of the Speed of Light. However, in actual fact, the full equation is e2 = m2 c4.

Plichta notes the following.

These excerpts give some sense of Plichta's discoveries. However the related equations have been omitted for brevity, and because one really needs to read 'God's Secret Formula' in order to appreciate the material fully.

The essence of it is that in place of space-time, in which time forms one dimension and the other dimensions are length, breadth and depth, Plichta has recognised two forms of space, the first is three-dimensional, as in the world we are familiar with, and the second is four-dimensional space that stretches to infinity. The latter form of space transmits waveforms and vibrations with perfect accuracy, and it is capable of carrying all frequencies without interference. Time is not a dimension in Plichta's model, it is simply the inverse of energy.

Besides having completed a doctorate on Einstein's theory of gravitation, Julian Barbour is one of the small number of theoretical physicists who are also true philosophers. He is well qualified to study the fundamental nature of time, and he has been doing so for 35 years. Nor is he in any way conceited or lacking a sense of humour. In his book, The End of Time, Barbour tells of an insight he gained in 1971, in the following terms.

Platonia is the name that Barbour gives to the configuration space in his model. If there were only three objects in the universe they would have a relative configuration, for three bodies it would be triangular. The space in which the relative arrangements of bodies move from 'place' to 'place' is Platonia. Each of the triangular, relative configurations can be thought of as a static, timeless picture. Julian Barbour terms these motionless, timeless instants, Nows. A series of such 'triangles' trace out a path in Platonia, this is the process that Barbour described in fourteen words, on a blackboard in his kitchen.

Anyone who has ever navigated by using dead reckoning will know that a map is used simply as a surface on which a track is traced. A navigator in a WWII bomber headed into Germany from England would plot a line on the map from the point of take-off and continue it for a length corresponding to the time required to travel a given distance at a known airspeed. Each alteration of course would be drawn as a new track, until the target was thought to have been reached. But neither the pilot or navigator might actually have been able to identify landmarks in the blacked-out terrain that had passed below their aircraft. The bomber kept track of itself. Although it is not exactly analogous, the surface of Platonia in Barbour's model is somewhat like the map on the navigator's chart table. A track can be traced out on the surface of a map to indicate the movement of an aircraft from place to place. Similarly, relative configurations of three bodies can trace out a path in Platonia.

In an actual bombing mission to Germany, in WWII, time would have been perceived to flow as Newton expected. However, if one views a film of a bombing mission, such as The Dam Busters, both the passage of time and the movement of the aircraft across the terrain are pure illusions. All that moves is a reel of film or a magnetic tape. Technology then projects a false image of 'reality' onto a screen that you view. Nothing else moves, the aircraft does not move, the crew inside it do not move, nor does the terrain move beneath the bomber on its mission. Everything is an illusion. The only realities are in the many frames of the movie, each one of which is similar to one of Barbour's Nows.

Whereas Plichta's work shows what time is - the inverse of energy - Barbour's model of Platonia shows where time is. It is in the Nows. Below are some of his theoretical conclusions on this matter.

The above contrasting theories on what time is, and where time is, can be readily understood by ordinary people. No particular skills in mathematics or expertise in the use of specialist measuring instruments or in devising experiments to test the theories, are required to comprehend them, Theories are basically ideas and they can be appreciated and evaluated in their broad forms, without the clutter of detail that academia invariably adds to them. Julian Barbour has written a whole book on the subject of time without descending into mathematical formulae or difficult, often incomprehensible, language specific to the realm of science. When the ideas about time are simply put, just about anyone can be involved in considering and debating them.

This is exactly what needs to happen, science needs to be discussed in the home, in meeting places such as coffee shops and bars, and particularly in schools. A deep and realistic understanding of nature and the universe is too important a goal to be left to institutionalised science. All the powers of imagination and thought available to humanity need to be engaged, not just the minds and energies of a limited number of specialists working within the formal research and funding frameworks of science .

The insights about time that Peter Plichta and Julian Barbour have developed, along with other really important thinking and discoveries, could have been developed early in the 20th century, rather than towards its close. The quest for the truth about nature and the universe could have been 50 or 60 years further advanced than it presently is, and that could have made a very great difference to the lives on many people on this planet. Earlier theoretical insights might also have saved many lives that have been lost in wars, plagues, famines, and other disasters. Ideas, often in the form of visualisations, always precede mathematics and other technical work. Until someone imagines a path to the deeply hidden truths in nature, nothing can be accomplished, no progress can be made.

Who are the most imaginative and lateral thinking people in our present society? Are they the scientists, or possibly the high IQ individuals employed to find new products and markets? Are they the entrepreneurs of the world, or are they advisors and consultants to industry and government? The answer to this question is known, and it is surprising to most people.

Research carried out by Edward de Bono in the 1960s, at the Cognitive Research Trust facilities at Cambridge University, clearly demonstrated that the most imaginative, inquisitive and freethinking human beings are children up to six years of age. Beyond that point young people remain imaginative but they begin to learn that ideas can be either 'right' or 'wrong', and that it is a bad thing to be found to be 'wrong' or to be seen to make mistakes. By the time they reach their mid-teens they are often quite conservative and restrained in the way they think about the world and existing knowledge. By then they have usually learned to defer to those in authority, particularly teachers and experts in various fields of knowledge. By the time they leave university and gain a few years of experience these young people have the capability to develop ideas and turn them into new technologies or products, but they have largely lost the ability to conceive or visualise anything radically new.

A project that de Bono conducted in Russia combined young children who were able to imagine new products and technologies with adults who had the capability to take the ideas and develop them was particularly successful. It again showed clearly that young children have an unstinted capacity to imagine new paths of inquiry and development, whereas adults are less able to find the start of such trails to a better world. This insight might be used to advantage in all areas of society, not just business and technology. A whole range of new inquiries and scientific and social solutions might be opened up in this way.

The Third Theory Domain [202]

Two of the four theories of time above are firmly in domains 1 and 2 of the earlier diagram. The work of Plichta and Barbour extends into domain 3, but perhaps not to the full extent that is now possible. Others will follow the trails that they have blazed. They will be bold, inquisitive souls. Those who push the boundaries of thought into the realms of truth where science meets religion are not fearful of being thought wrong. Indeed, it their ideas are readily accepted these theoretical pathfinders can be certain that they are falling well short of the reality they are seeking. Peter Plichta has expressed his certainty about his own insights as follows.

He is sure of that in his mind, but the world at large has yet to be convinced. Yet the delay in acceptance is only that - a delay, not an everlasting barrier to the truth being known everywhere that people meet and talk. When it eventually happens, wide realisation of the truth and significance of Plichta's work will be quite sudden. That is also how it was with Einstein. When the theories that are put forward seem to contradict what our senses tell us it takes time for us to take them seriously. But in the end the truth will win out, and humanity will take another leap towards knowing all that can be known. If and when we reach that goal we should not be surprised to find that earlier beings have been there before us.

Theories in the third domain are necessarily more speculative and less verifiable than those in the other two domains. They also tend to be more 'weird' and 'unlikely' than the still widely accepted Newtonian version of reality. They had better be, otherwise they will almost certainly be wrong.

An example of such a theory that attempts to answer all the puzzling questions about the world we observe, and what is beyond our observation, was developed by Douglas Vogt and Gary Sultan. In their book, Reality Revealed: The Theory of Multidimensional Reality, they seek to explain a wide range of phenomena, including many that fall outside the realm of conventional, grant governed, science. Since Vogt and Sultan's book dates from 1978 some of the concepts they use to explain their ideas have now been superseded by people such as Plichta. However the basic foundations of their theory rest on the work of one of the greatest scientists of the industrial age, Nicola Tesla. More will be said about Tesla in other sections of this freesite, but Vogt and Sultan continue to be on very sound ground when they quote and utilise his ideas and discoveries. It could also be said that, although they were technically qualified adults when they combined to write a book on science and meta-science, they were often able to think with the imagination and openness of six year olds. Here is an outline of their ideas.

Vogt and Sultan' s Theory [203]

Firstly, it is necessary to recognise that the 'dimensions' that Vogt and Sultan identify with their model are not the same as the three spatial dimensions of Newton or the space-time of Einstein. An alternative term for Vogt and Sultan's 'dimensions' is levels. Secondly. there is no claim on the part of the authors that the actual mechanisms that shape and control the universe are the same as they postulate in their 'tape play-back' analogy and other explanations. What Vogt and Sultan seek to do is to imagine a theory that could account for all observed and experienced phenomena, not just those that present-day science feels competent to explain.

They address such events as: the tornado in which lighter objects, such as straw, have been seen to be driven into more solid objects, such as glass; the discoveries of animals entombed in rock and other material that have regained life for a short time after release; the well known 'phantom limb' effect experienced by amputees; and many other paranormal phenomena such as clairvoyance and telekinesis. Although such things are beyond the explanatory abilities of mainstream science, Vogt and Sultan contend that their idea can explain them all.

The following diagram shows the nature of the eight levels or 'dimensions' in the Vogt/Sultan theory.

[The diagram "VogtSultan.jpg" can be found in the separate file 2Rdiagrams.rar]

The levels are:

  1. The storage level for all information in the universe. This is also where the geometric structure of visible matter originates. Vogt and Sultan term this structure the diehold, it transmits information into the second level. Of the first level they say:
    "The first dimension has no length, no width, no depth, and time is truly irrelevant."

  2. The transmission of information is by means of magnetic lines of force. The waves are similar to electromagnetic waves, but without the electrical wave component (see the earlier electromagnetic wave diagram). The phase angles of the wave are set by the geometric structure of the diehold.

  3. Elements, the basis of perceived matter, are created at this level by modulation of the transmission wave. The frequencies that are unique to each element are governed by the geometric structure of the diehold. There is an eerie similarity between this concept and the way Plichta's Prime Number Cross regulates the structures of the elements. The mechanisms are quite different, but the concepts are similar.

  4. Life and intelligence are modulated into existence at this level. The living organisms here are all aware of their environment, whether they be tadpoles or humans. As the potential of a living thing is increased it is able to perceive and understand more of what is around it. Intelligence increases with potential in the diehold. Conventional science does most of its investigation of 'reality' at this level, because there are seemingly tangible objects and organisms that can be measured and observed.

  5. There is so much more potential at this level that an intelligent being is able to perceive more information of its surroundings in the diehold than is possible by using the lower senses of sight, smell, touch, and so on. Some psychic abilities can be explained by this level of the model.

    Vogt and Sultan reason that a fifth-level being is able to bend the information that makes up three-dimensional objects, and also change the signal modulation of an object so that its time reference is altered.

    In their model, time is the distance travelled by 'the head device' or 'tape head' across the information of existence. The speed of the 'device' across the information is that of light, 300, 000 km per second. While a sufficiently conscious being can travel anywhere in the universe, past or present, by raising its potential, nothing can travel faster than the 'head device' transmitting its existence. Gravity is the information of an object being directed towards its time and space. Objects with lager domains of information have stronger gravitational fields than those with less information. If these ideas seem strange, it's because they are. However the truth about the nature of the universe is unlikely to be, in any sense, Newtonian. It is sure to be counter-intuitive and unexpected.

    Note that Vogt and Sultan do not suggest that there really is a 'head device' somewhere that is reading all the information that comprises existence. They use the analogy of a tape-head to illustrate the type of principle that could be involved. Just like the 'Big Bang', their idea of how information is organised in the universe is just a theory. Neither of these are, as yet, proven fact. Science does not yet know the real answers, although the opposite impression in often given in lectures and text books.

  6. Another leap in potential enables intelligent beings at this level to move objects in time and space. Various psychokinetic abilities can be explained by this level of the model. Vogt and Sultan say that if an intelligent being at this level has a fish in its possession, it does not just have that fish in a fourth level existence, it has the information contained in the diehold, about what makes up that fish. The sixth level being is then able to reproduce the fish as many times as it wishes.

  7. Because it has such a huge amount of potential a planet occupies the seventh level of the model. Vogt and Sultan concede that this seems strange, coming as if does above and beyond a super-intelligent being. However, they insist that this arrangement is logical, and that, in fact, a planet has many frequencies associated with it and it is logical to assume that it perceives a great deal of its existence from the diehold.

  8. The ultimate level is that of a star. Vogt and Sultan explain it thus. "A star is the only thing in the universe that collapses upon itself when it becomes a black hole. When it becomes a black hole, what is happening is that its information is going to the first dimension, or back to the diehold. This process probably occurs when it has evolved so far and collected so much potential that it can pull in unlimited amounts of information from its surroundings in the diehold. This information we would perceive as a gravitational field. When the gravitational field (concentrated information) gets too great, the star can no longer exist in any other dimension but the first dimension."

Vogt and Sultan's model is an example of an imaginative theory that seeks to explain all the observed phenomena in our world. One of its most striking notions is that information, in the from of patterns and designs, but also thoughts and memories, exists elsewhere. It seems to be in our brains, and it is assumed to perish with the biological body at death. But, in Vogt and Sultan's concept of reality, our brain is just another sense organ. It sends and receives information, but the brain does not store data or process it in the same manner that a computer does. Such a hypothesis is contrary to our perception. We think that our brain 'holds' our thoughts and memories, however we cannot be sure that this is the case.

Explanations For The Unexplainable [204]

Human experience is crammed with happenings for which grant-governed science has no plausible explanations. Because very little funding is ever allocated to the investigation of anything that smacks of the supernatural or the paranormal, hardly any progress has been made towards finding scientific explanations of such phenomena. For example the uncanny ability of common companion animals, such as cats, to find their way home through unfamiliar terrain is an ongoing mystery. Cats are not migratory in the way that many birds are. Cats normally spend their whole lives within a quite small territory that surrounds their home. Yet, when cats are removed to a place far away they frequently find their way back. There are innumerable recorded instances of this 'homing' ability of domestic felines, but no explanations as to how they do it.

The cat shown in the photo travelled a distance of some 65 miles to be reunited with her carer. This documented case occurred in La Ribière, France, in 1967. An even longer journey was made by a ginger cat named Skittles. He travelled a distance of 560 km in 140 days after having been lost from an automobile while on holidays in Minnesota, USA, in 2003.

Most people are aware of such events involving cats, dogs and other animals, they know it happens but they don't know how. Conventional explanations focus on such factors as the use of scent (a bit hard from hundreds of kilometres away), navigation by the sun, and similar sensory mechanisms. There is no scientific theory that can fully explain how cats such as Minette and Skittles find their way home with unerring accuracy - except for the Vogt and Sultan theory of Muntidimensional Reality. If cats possess fifth level abilities (nobody has done any studies that can rule this in or out), then they could directly perceive information, such as the route home, from the diehold.

This in not to suggest that cats can perceive information by using abilities beyond their lower level senses. The point is that although the explanation derived from the Multidimensional Reality Theory is weird, it cannot be rejected simply because of its weirdness. It is not just solutions to how cats find their way home that are explainable by the use of the MRT. Surprisingly, most other strange events can also be explained by the theory. In fact, Vogt and Sultan devote much of their book to examples that do just that - they explain the unexplainable.

Who Is Running The Universe? [205]

There is a common piece of street wisdom that describes how to determine who is really running any strange town that you come to on a journey. The advice is to listen to who is mentioned in conversations about the affairs and administration of the town. It is never the people who are talked about in connection with town matters or politics who are actually running things. The rule says that it is always the people who are never mentioned who are in real control. If you want to know who has the power, find out who is never mentioned as having any. When you begin to learn about and debate science with other non-scientists like yourself, remember this piece of street wisdom. Nothing is what it seems to be. The mayor or the police chief might seem to wield the power but, in reality, the power lies elsewhere, and that truth is seldom mentioned.

Hundreds of tons of paper are consumed every year just to print scientific papers. These documents are the output of grant governed science and the 'publish or perish' ethic of its institutions. The papers are dry reading and full of long words and complicated formulae. They purport to answer the questions that orthodox science can aspire to answer, the issues in the 1st and 2nd theory domains - but never the third. Popular theories such as the Big Bang fill countless documents and textbooks. Earlier civilizations are always reported as having been less knowledgeable than that of the present-day, and so on. Notwithstanding such errors much of modern science is useful, even if the theories that explain new discoveries are often dubious. The discoveries themselves, and the technologies they spawn are driving the 2nd Renaissance and laying the foundations for a Level 4 Civilization.

When you read and discuss modern scientific theories; the ideas behind the explanations of discoveries, keep the above street wisdom in mind. Do not expect to find any mention of who or what is really in control of the universe. Never expect to see a single scientific paper that mentions God, and you will not be disappointed. Everything is explained in terms of probability, chance and coincidence. Only those outside the system, like Peter Plichta, dare to tell the truth about who is really running our town.

Still, it is not really institutionalised science that is in opposition to religion. Science is predominantly funded by governments and corporations, there are a few independents such as Plichta and Barbour, but the majority of scientists don't have much freedom to express their true views on God. They either generate papers that don't attribute any causality to God or they don't have a job or an income. The OWO buys the scientific truth it wants. The real divide in beliefs is not between science and religion, it is between Government and God. Although many totalitarian states adopt particular brands of their own, those religions end up being mere interpretations and sets of rules that reinforce takerism.

Federations are, despite carefully contrived appearances to the contrary, essentially godless. Truly religious leaders live and act according to principles that accord with the natural world and the design inherent in it. They think very like Martinus thought. Some leaders of this type can still be found in the deep jungles, and various non-westernised cultures, they are often called shamans. But the churchgoing, baby kissing, political leaders of modern nation states are more sham than shaman and, ultimately, it is their influence that shapes the atheist attitudes of institutionalised science.

The PART TWO freesite link is here.

Go forward in peace. And always remember the line from Gravity's Rainbow:
"If they can get you asking the wrong questions, they don't have to worry about the answers."

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